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We have developed a new system of chromosomal mutagenesis in order to study the functions of uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) in wild-type Escherichia coli. Because of the operon structure of this organism, traditional methods such as insertional mutagenesis run the risk of introducing polar effects on downstream genes or creating secondary(More)
The molecular biology of metastatic potential in melanoma has been studied many times previously and changes in the expression of many genes have been linked to metastatic behaviour. What is lacking is a systematic characterization of the regulatory relationships between genes whose expression is related to metastatic potential. Such a characterization(More)
While it is well known that serious illness and inflammation reduce male fertility, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In adult male rats, a single injection of lipopolysaccharide at doses that induced either mild or severe inflammation, caused a biphasic decline in Leydig cell testosterone production and gonadotropin responsiveness. In the high(More)
Activin-A is a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily member that plays a pivotal role in many developmental and reproductive processes. It is also involved in neuroprotection, apoptosis of tumor and some immune cells, wound healing, and cancer. Its role as an immune-regulating protein has not previously been described. Here we demonstrate(More)
The regulation of reproductive processes involves a complex network of communication systems between the brain, endocrine organs, the gonads and other reproductive tissues. Classically, our understanding has focused on the role of endocrine hormones, but more recently interest has also dwelt on the paracrine and autocrine regulation of these cell systems.(More)
In vitro data have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits Leydig cell testosterone production, suggesting that NO may play a role in the suppression of steroidogenesis and spermatogenic function during inflammation. Consequently, we investigated expression of the inflammation-inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) in the inflamed adult rat testis and(More)
Follistatin was first described in 1987 as a follicle-stimulating hormone inhibiting substance present in ovarian follicular fluid. We now know that this effect of follistatin is only one of its many properties in a number of reproductive and nonreproductive systems. A majority of these functions are facilitated through the affinity of follistatin for(More)
It has been widely demonstrated that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope, specifically the V3 loop of the gp120 spike, evolves to facilitate adaptation to different cellular populations within an infected host. Less energy has been directed at determining whether the viral promoter, designated the long terminal repeat (LTR), also(More)
Activin A, a transforming growth factor-β family cytokine, plays a crucial role in regulating the onset and severity of many inflammatory conditions, such as acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Activin A is also implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterised by insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and chronic elevation of(More)
BACKGROUND/METHODS Hepatocyte proliferation in viral hepatitis is regulated by a number of growth factors. Activin-A inhibits hepatocyte DNA synthesis while follistatin, a potent activin-A antagonist, promotes liver regeneration. We report the first study of activin-A and follistatin in human viral hepatitis. Sera from 15 normal subjects, 22 hepatitis B and(More)