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PURPOSE Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) is a recombinant, humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody. Erlotinib HCl (Tarceva, OSI-774; OSI Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) is a potent, reversible, highly selective and orally available HER-1/epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.(More)
Defective function of dendritic cells (DC) in cancer has been recently described and may represent one of the mechanisms of tumor evasion from immune system control. We have previously shown in vitro that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by almost all tumors, is one of the tumor-derived factors responsible for the defective function of(More)
PURPOSE Programmed death 1 is an immune checkpoint that suppresses antitumor immunity. Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, was active and generally well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts. We report overall survival (OS), response(More)
Inadequate presentation of tumor antigens by host professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs), is one potential mechanism for the escape of tumors from the host immune system. Here, we show that human cancer cell lines release a soluble factor or factors that dramatically affect DC maturation from precursors without(More)
Aberrant TGFbeta signaling is common in human cancers and contributes to tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are recruited into mammary carcinomas with type II TGF beta receptor gene (Tgfbr2) deletion and directly promote tumor metastasis. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells infiltrate into the invasive front of tumor tissues and facilitate(More)
We demonstrate a novel tumor-promoting role of myeloid immune suppressor Gr+CD11b+ cells, which are evident in cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. These cells constitute approximately 5% of total cells in tumors. Tumors coinjected with Gr+CD11b+ cells exhibited increased vascular density, vascular maturation, and decreased necrosis. These immune(More)
The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of(More)
Mast cells play critical roles in hypersensitivity and in defense against certain parasites. We provide evidence that mouse mast cell survival and growth are promoted by monomeric IgE binding to its high-affinity receptor, Fc epsilon RI. Monomeric IgE does not promote DNA synthesis but suppresses the apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation. This(More)
Notch3 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of cell surface receptors important in cell-fate determination in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Significant data support the role of Notch pathway in cancer development, although the conflicting role of Notch signaling pathways in tumorigenesis suggests that its action is highly(More)
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a major COX metabolite, plays important roles in several facets of tumor biology. We characterized the contribution of the PGE(2) EP2 receptor to cancer-associated immune deficiency using EP2(-/-) mice. EP2(-/-) mice exhibited significantly attenuated tumor growth and longer survival times when challenged with MC26 or Lewis lung(More)