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In 'colored-hearing' synesthesia, individuals report color experiences when they hear spoken words. If the synesthetic color experience resembles that of normal color perception, one would predict activation of parts of the visual system specialized for such perception, namely the human 'color center', referred to as either V4 or V8. Using functional(More)
Age-related decline in allocentric (viewer-independent) spatial memory is seen across species. We employed a virtual reality analogue of the Morris Water Maze to study the effect of healthy ageing on neural activity during allocentric spatial memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was used to ascertain hippocampal(More)
Coloured hearing synaesthetes experience colours to heard words, as confirmed by reliability of self-report, psychophysical testing and functional neuroimaging data. Some also describe the 'alien colour effect' (ACE): in response to colour names, they experience colours different from those named. We have previously reported that the ACE slows colour naming(More)
An immersive virtual reality (IVR) system was used to investigate allocentric spatial memory in a patient (PR) who had selective hippocampal damage, and also in patients who had undergone unilateral temporal lobectomies (17 right TL and 19 left TL), their performance compared against normal control groups. A human analogue of the Olton [Olton (1979).(More)
The role of the septohippocampal cholinergic system in memory disorders is well established. The effects of cholinergic challenge in animals have been extensively studied using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) which engages allocentric spatial memory. The present study investigated the effect of the centrally active muscarinic antagonist scopolamine on(More)
Hippocampal activation was investigated, comparing allocentric and egocentric spatial memory. Healthy participants were immersed in a virtual reality circular arena, with pattern-rendered walls. In a viewpoint-independent task, they moved toward a pole, which was then removed. They were relocated to another position and had to move to the prior location of(More)
Virtual environments (VEs) are extensively used in training but there have been few rigorous scientific investigations of whether and how skills learned in a VE are transferred to the real world. This research aimed to measure and evaluate what is transferring from training a simple sensorimotor task in a VE to real world performance. In experiment 1, real(More)
The XWeb architecture delivers interfaces to a wide variety of interactive platforms. XWeb's SUBSCRIBE mechanism allows multiple interactive clients to synchronize with each other. We define the concept of Join as the mechanism for acquiring access to a service's interface. Join also allows the formation of spontaneous collaborations with other people. We(More)
Two patients, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-confirmed relatively selective hippocampal damage, showed distinct patterns of performance on tests of recall, item recognition, and associative recognition. Patient AC showed a mean bilateral volume reduction of the hippocampus of 28%, but displayed no memory deficit. Both recall and recognition memory(More)
Training is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of application of the technology of Virtual Reality (VR) with virtual training being developed in industry, commerce, the military, medical and other areas of education and in a variety of types of rehabilitation. In all cases such training rests upon the assumption that what is learned in the virtual(More)