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We consider truthful implementation of the socially efficient allocation in an independent private-value environment in which agents receive private information over time. We propose a suitable generalization of the pivot mechanism, based on the marginal contribution of each agent. In the dynamic pivot mechanism, the ex post incentive and ex post(More)
Body weight is regulated by complex neurohormonal interactions between endocrine signals of long-term adiposity (e.g., leptin, a hypothalamic signal) and short-term satiety (e.g., amylin, a hindbrain signal). We report that concurrent peripheral administration of amylin and leptin elicits synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant,(More)
Exenatide (synthetic exendin-4), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and GLP-1 analogues have actions with the potential to significantly improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Evidence suggests that these agents use a combination of mechanisms which may include glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion,(More)
The effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) on metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass were examined in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats. After 6 wk of treatment, ad libitum-fed exenatide-treated (EX) and pair-fed vehicle control (PF) rats had comparable food intake, body weight, hemoglobin A(1c)(More)
BACKGROUND: Peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino-acid peptide secreted from ileal L cells following meals. The cleaved subpeptide PYY[3–36] is biologically active and may constitute the majority of circulating PYY-like immunoreactivity. The peptide family that includes PYY, pancreatic peptide and neuropeptide Y is noted for its orexigenic effect following(More)
Exenatide is a 39 amino acid incretin mimetic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with glucoregulatory activity similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Exenatide is a poor substrate for the major route of GLP-1 degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, and displays enhanced pharmacokinetics and in vivo potency in rats relative to GLP-1. The kidney(More)
The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments further explores the long-term effects of amylin (4-11 wk)(More)
The present studies aimed to identify mechanisms contributing to amylin/leptin synergy in reducing body weight and adiposity. We reasoned that if amylin/leptin harnessed complementary neuronal pathways, then in the leptin-sensitive state, amylin should augment leptin signaling/binding and that in the absence of endogenous amylin, leptin signaling should be(More)
The risk of developing pancreatitis is elevated in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Cases of pancreatitis have been reported in type 2 diabetes patients treated with GLP-1 (GLP-1R) receptor agonists. To examine whether the GLP-1R agonist exenatide potentially induces or modulates pancreatitis, the effect of exenatide was evaluated in normal or diabetic rodents.(More)
These preclinical studies aimed to 1) increase our understanding the dietary induction of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and, 2) further explore the utility and mechanisms of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonism in NASH. We compared the effects of a high trans-fat (HTF) or high lard fat (HLF) diet on key facets of nonalcoholic fatty liver(More)