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Macrophages (Mphis) in the large intestine are crucial effectors of inflammatory bowel disease, but are also essential for homeostasis. It is unclear if these reflect separate populations of Ms or if resident Ms change during inflammation. In this study, we identify two subsets of colonic Ms in mice, whose proportions differ in healthy and inflamed(More)
Mouse p202 containing two hemopoietic expression, interferon inducibility, nuclear localization (HIN) domains antagonizes AIM2 inflammasome signaling and potentially modifies lupus susceptibility. We found that only HIN1 of p202 binds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), while HIN2 forms a homotetramer. Crystal structures of HIN1 revealed that dsDNA is bound on(More)
Macrophages and B cells are activated by unmethylated CpG-containing sequences in bacterial DNA. The lack of activity of self DNA has generally been attributed to CpG suppression and methylation, although the role of methylation is in doubt. The frequency of CpG in the mouse genome is 12.5% of Escherichia coli, with unmethylated CpG occurring at(More)
We report in this study that activation of the JNK by the growth factor, CSF-1 is critical for macrophage development, proliferation, and survival. Inhibition of JNK with two distinct classes of inhibitors, the pharmacological agent SP600125, or the peptide D-JNKI1 resulted in cell cycle inhibition with an arrest at the G(2)/M transition and subsequent(More)
During bacterial infections, the balance between resolution of infection and development of sepsis is dependent upon the macrophage response to bacterial products. We show that priming of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with CSF-1 differentially regulates the response to two such stimuli, LPS and immunostimulatory (CpG) DNA. CSF-1 pretreatment(More)
Macrophages respond to unmethylated CpG motifs present in nonmammalian DNA. Stabilized phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotides (PS-ODN) containing CpG motifs form the basis of immunotherapeutic agents. In this study, we show that PS-ODN do not perfectly mimic native DNA in activation of macrophages. CpG-containing PS-ODN were active at 10- to(More)
Implantation of sterile foreign objects in the peritoneal cavity of an animal initiates an inflammatory response and results in encapsulation of the objects by bone marrow-derived cells. Over time, a multilayered tissue capsule develops with abundant myofibroblasts embedded in extracellular matrix. The present study used the transgenic MacGreen mouse to(More)
Human and mouse monocyte can be divided into two different subpopulations based on surface marker expression: CD14/16 and Ly6C/CX3CR1, respectively. Monocyte subpopulations in the pig were identified based on reciprocal expression of CD14 and the scavenger receptor CD163. The two populations, CD14(hi)-CD163(low) and CD14(low)-CD163(hi), show approximately(More)
Murine macrophages are able to distinguish bacterial from mammalian DNA. The response is mimicked by single-stranded oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CG dinucleotides ("CpG" motifs) in specific sequence contexts. The dose-response curve for activation is influenced by variation in the sequence flanking the core CpG motif. CpG or bacterial DNA(More)
The draft genome of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) has recently been published permitting refined analysis of the transcriptome. Pig breeds have been reported to differ in their resistance to infectious disease. In this study we examine whether there are corresponding differences in gene expression in innate immune cells We demonstrate that macrophages can(More)