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Macrophages are involved in many aspects of development, host defense, pathology, and homeostasis. Their normal differentiation, proliferation, and survival are controlled by CSF-1 via the activation of the CSF1R. A recently discovered cytokine, IL-34, was shown to bind the same receptor in humans. Chicken is a widely used model organism in developmental(More)
The murine mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) system comprises a diverse population of cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Derived from the myeloid haematopoietic lineage, this group of cells express a variety of well characterized surface markers. Expression of the integrin alpha X (Itgax, CD11c) is commonly used to identify(More)
Macrophages (Mphis) in the large intestine are crucial effectors of inflammatory bowel disease, but are also essential for homeostasis. It is unclear if these reflect separate populations of Ms or if resident Ms change during inflammation. In this study, we identify two subsets of colonic Ms in mice, whose proportions differ in healthy and inflamed(More)
Inflammasomes are protein complexes assembled upon recognition of infection or cell damage signals, and serve as platforms for clustering and activation of procaspase-1. Oligomerisation of initiating proteins such as AIM2 (absent in melanoma-2) and NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing-3) recruits procaspase-1 via the inflammasome adapter(More)
Macrophages and B cells are activated by unmethylated CpG-containing sequences in bacterial DNA. The lack of activity of self DNA has generally been attributed to CpG suppression and methylation, although the role of methylation is in doubt. The frequency of CpG in the mouse genome is 12.5% of Escherichia coli, with unmethylated CpG occurring at(More)
Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) grown in M-CSF (CSF-1) have been used widely in studies of macrophage biology and the response to TLR agonists. We investigated whether similar cells could be derived from the domestic pig using human rCSF-1 and whether porcine macrophages might represent a better model of human macrophage biology. Cultivation of(More)
Complications arising from dengue virus infection include potentially fatal vascular leak, and severe disease has been linked with excessive immune cell activation. An understanding of the triggers of this activation is critical for the development of appropriately targeted disease control strategies. We show here that the secreted form of the dengue virus(More)
Macrophage/dendritic cells and B cells remain the only cell types where direct responses to CpG DNA are well established. The role of macrophages in vivo in DNA clearance and the potent cytokine induction in macrophages and dendritic cells places them in the central role in the in vivo response to foreign DNA. Although responses to DNA are unlikely to(More)
During bacterial infections, the balance between resolution of infection and development of sepsis is dependent upon the macrophage response to bacterial products. We show that priming of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with CSF-1 differentially regulates the response to two such stimuli, LPS and immunostimulatory (CpG) DNA. CSF-1 pretreatment(More)
Macrophages respond to unmethylated CpG motifs present in nonmammalian DNA. Stabilized phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotides (PS-ODN) containing CpG motifs form the basis of immunotherapeutic agents. In this study, we show that PS-ODN do not perfectly mimic native DNA in activation of macrophages. CpG-containing PS-ODN were active at 10- to(More)