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Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is a lipid kinase that catalyzes the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which has been shown to play a role in lymphocyte trafficking, angiogenesis, and response to apoptotic stimuli. As a central enzyme in modulating the S1P levels in cells, SphK1 emerges as an important regulator for diverse cellular(More)
Interleukin (IL)-33 (or IL-1F11) was recently identified as a ligand for the orphan IL-1 receptor family member T1/ST2 (ST2). IL-33 belongs to the IL-1 cytokine family and, upon binding to ST2, induces intracellular signals similar to those utilized by IL-1. The effects of other IL-1 family cytokines are mediated by their binding to a specific receptor and(More)
Hepsin is a membrane-anchored, trypsin-like serine protease with prominent expression in the human liver and tumours of the prostate and ovaries. To better understand the biological functions of hepsin, we identified macromolecular substrates employing a tetrapeptide PS-SCL (positional scanning-synthetic combinatorial library) screen that rapidly determines(More)
Fragments of human thrombomodulin (TM) have been expressed in large quantities in the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system and purified to homogeneity. Fermentation of P. pastoris resulted in yields of 170 mg/l TM. Purification to homogeneity resulted in an overall 10% yield, so that quantities of approximately 20 mg purified fragments can be readily(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) catalyzes the first step in tryptophan breakdown along the kynurenine pathway. Therapeutic inhibition of IDO1 is receiving much attention due to its proposed role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, hypotension and neurodegenerative disorders. A related enzyme, IDO2 has recently been described. We(More)
Genomics-driven growth in the number of enzymes of unknown function has created a need for better strategies to characterize them. Since enzyme inhibitors have traditionally served this purpose, we present here an efficient systems-based inhibitor design strategy, enabled by bioinformatic and NMR structural developments. First, we parse the oxidoreductase(More)
The expression levels of five secreted target interleukins (IL-11, 15, 17B, 32, and IL23 p19 subunit) were tested with three different fusion partners in 2936E cells. When fused to the N-terminus, human serum albumin (HSA) was found to enhance the expression of both IL-17B and IL-15, cytokines which did not express at measurable levels on their own.(More)
Genomic research on target identification and validation has created a great need for methods that rapidly provide detailed structural information on protein-ligand interactions. We developed a suite of NMR experiments as rapid and efficient tools to provide descriptive structural information on protein-ligand complexes. The methods work with large proteins(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a cancer-specific deletion mutant observed in approximately 25% to 50% of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. An antibody drug conjugate, AMG 595, composed of the maytansinoid DM1 attached to a highly selective anti-EGFRvIII antibody via a noncleavable linker, was developed to treat(More)