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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder in which surfactant-derived lipoproteins accumulate excessively within pulmonary alveoli, causing severe respiratory distress. The importance of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the pathogenesis of PAP has been confirmed in humans and mice, wherein GM-CSF signaling is(More)
The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. However, the identity and functions of IL-17-producing T cells during the pathogenesis of allergic diseases remain unclear. Here, we report a novel subset of T(H)2 memory/effector cells that coexpress the transcription factors GATA3 and RORγt and coproduce(More)
Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2(More)
Monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide treatment was compared with placebo treatment for one year in a controlled trial of 14 patients with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Eight patients received placebo and six patients received cyclophosphamide. The cyclophosphamide group showed a definite trend to have less frequent and less prolonged episodes than(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a human autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Clinical, serologic, immunologic, and pathologic findings are highly variable in different patients and at different times in the same patient. Murine and canine animal models of SLE have been found with clinicopathologic abnormalities resembling those observed in humans.(More)
By means of a series of crosses and backcrosses, ZB.CBA/N mice were prepared bearing largely NZB autosomal genes, but having X chromosomes derived only from CBA/N mice. The CBA/N X chromosome carries a gene, xid, that is associated with the lack of a B cell subset necessary for most of the spontaneous autoantibody production by NZB mice. These ZB.CBA/N mice(More)
Maternally transmitted antigen (Mta) is a murine cell-surface molecule defined by the reactivity of specific H-2 nonrestricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL-s). Maternal transmission appears to be under control of a stable genetic factor in the cytoplasm of the ovum. In view of the known maternal inheritance of mitochondria we have assessed their involvement(More)
Mta-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) can be generated in primary cultures of (NZB X B10.D2)F1 spleen cells with H-2-compatible BALB/c stimulator cells. The CTL lyse reciprocal Mta+ (B10.D2 X NZB)F1 as well as H-2-disparate targets, such as B10, B6, and B6-Tlaa; they do not lyse targets from NZB or any F1 hybrid of an NZB mother. The lysis of(More)
The effects of intensive plasma exchange on the serological and clinical manifestations of mildly active systemic lupus erythematosus were evaluated in a controlled, double-blind trial. Twenty patients were randomised to receive either six 4-litre plasma exchanges or a seemingly identical control procedure over a 2-week period. Plasma exchange produced(More)