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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder in which surfactant-derived lipoproteins accumulate excessively within pulmonary alveoli, causing severe respiratory distress. The importance of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the pathogenesis of PAP has been confirmed in humans and mice, wherein GM-CSF signaling is(More)
The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. However, the identity and functions of IL-17-producing T cells during the pathogenesis of allergic diseases remain unclear. Here, we report a novel subset of T(H)2 memory/effector cells that coexpress the transcription factors GATA3 and RORγt and coproduce(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of CXCL13 in the development and pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and to determine the mechanisms involved in the modulation of arthritogenic response by CXCL13 neutralization. METHODS Mice were immunized with type II collagen (CII) and treated with anti-CXCL13 or control antibodies during boosting. Mice(More)
Monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide treatment was compared with placebo treatment for one year in a controlled trial of 14 patients with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Eight patients received placebo and six patients received cyclophosphamide. The cyclophosphamide group showed a definite trend to have less frequent and less prolonged episodes than(More)
Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2(More)
BACKGROUND IL-5-producing allergen-specific T cells are thought to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We hypothesized that T cell allergen-driven IL-5 synthesis is elevated in patients with atopic disease as compared with that in atopic patients free of disease and nonatopic control subjects. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this(More)
BACKGROUND Alternative splicing is important for increasing the complexity of the human proteome from a limited genome. Previous studies have shown that for some autoantigens, there is differential immunogenicity among alternatively spliced isoforms. OBJECTIVES Herein, we tested the hypothesis that alternative splicing is a common feature for transcripts(More)
Moderate-dose (15 to 20 mg/kg) bolus intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide is increasingly being employed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. High-dose (30 to 50 mg/kg) IV cyclophosphamide, which is used in transplantation and oncology, may cause water intolerance and water intoxication. Described herein is the first patient, to our knowledge, to develop(More)
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) shares many, but not all, of the properties of the prototypic T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine IL-4, but its role in allergen-driven T-cell responses remains poorly defined. We hypothesized that allergen stimulation of peripheral blood T cells from patients with atopic disease compared with non-atopic controls results in elevated IL-13(More)
Specific eosinophil accumulation and activation within the asthmatic bronchial mucosa are thought to occur at least partly through the actions of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-3 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Although mRNA encoding some of these cytokines has been demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)(More)