David P. Barker

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Background. Many human fetuses and infants have to adapt to a limited supply of nutrients, and in doing so they permanently change their physiology and metabolism. These programmed changes may be the origins of a number of diseases in later life, including coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and hypertension. Coronary heart disease. We have become(More)
The thrifty phenotype hypothesis proposes that the epidemiological associations between poor fetal and infant growth and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome result from the effects of poor nutrition in early life, which produces permanent changes in glucose-insulin metabolism. These changes include reduced capacity for(More)
OBJECTIVE To discover whether reduced fetal and infant growth is associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in adult life. DESIGN Follow up study of men born during 1920-30 whose birth weights and weights at 1 year were known. SETTING Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS 468 men born in east Hertfordshire and still(More)
Two follow-up studies were carried out to determine whether lower birthweight is related to the occurrence of syndrome X — Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. The first study included 407 men born in Hertfordshire, England between 1920 and 1930 whose weights at birth and at 1 year of age had been recorded by(More)
In national samples of 9921 10 year olds and 3259 adults in Britain systolic blood pressure was inversely related to birth weight. The association was independent of gestational age and may therefore be attributed to reduced fetal growth. This suggests that the intrauterine environment influences blood pressure during adult life. It is further evidence that(More)
In this contribution we put forward a novel hypothesis concerning the aetiology of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The concept underlying our hypothesis is that poor fetal and early post-natal nutrition imposes mechanisms of nutritional thrift upon the growing individual. We propose that one of the major long-term consequences of(More)
BACKGROUND Low birthweight has been consistently shown to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and its biological risk factors. The effects of low birthweight are increased by slow infant growth and rapid weight gain in childhood. To quantify the importance of developmental processes in the genesis of CHD it is necessary to establish the impact(More)
1234 be related to low birth weight in these men and women, and to low weight at 1 year among the men.3 This was the first study based on individual (rather than ecological) level data to demonstrate such relationships. Having studied mortality, the next stage was to explore the relationship between the early environment and a range of morbidity outcomes in(More)
Although the rise in ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales has been associated with increasing prosperity, mortality rates are highest in the least affluent areas. On division of the country into two hundred and twelve local authority areas a strong geographical relation was found between ischaemic heart disease mortality rates in 1968-78 and infant(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is associated with low birthweight followed by obesity in adulthood. Persons who develop the disease may therefore have a particular pattern of growth from birth through childhood. OBJECTIVE To examine the relation of type 2 diabetes to size at birth and childhood growth. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Helsinki, Finland. (More)