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OBJECTIVE To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. METHOD In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess what interventions are effective in promoting a population shift from using cars towards walking and cycling and to assess the health effects of such interventions. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished reports in any language identified from electronic databases, bibliographies, websites, and reference lists. REVIEW METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. DATA SOURCES Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included (n = 84) if they reported the effects of any(More)
Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation directly and indirectly affect levels of(More)
BACKGROUND Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a(More)
BACKGROUND The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases,(More)
Appendix A Tool used for the quality appraisal of the primary studies, based on Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist for cohort studies 12-question checklist Criteria Bi n ary thresholds for criteria 1. Did the study address a clearly focused issue? Initial quality screening questions 2. Did the authors use an appropriate method to answer(More)
BACKGROUND Modifying transport infrastructure to support active travel (walking and cycling) could help to increase population levels of physical activity. However, there is limited evidence for the effects of interventions in this field, and to the best of our knowledge no study has convincingly demonstrated an increase in physical activity directly(More)
BACKGROUND One attraction of meta-analysis is the forest plot, a compact overview of the essential data included in a systematic review and the overall 'result'. However, meta-analysis is not always suitable for synthesising evidence about the effects of interventions which may influence the wider determinants of health. As part of a systematic review of(More)