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OBJECTIVE To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. METHOD In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent(More)
Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation directly and indirectly affect levels of(More)
  • J Riley, R Butler, +6 authors A F Markham
  • 1990
The recent development of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vectors has provided a system for cloning fragments that are over ten times larger than those that can be cloned in more established systems. We have developed a method for the rapid isolation of terminal sequences from YAC clones. The YAC clone is digested with a range of restriction enzymes, a(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess what interventions are effective in promoting a population shift from using cars towards walking and cycling and to assess the health effects of such interventions. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished reports in any language identified from electronic databases, bibliographies, websites, and reference lists. REVIEW METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. DATA SOURCES Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included (n = 84) if they reported the effects of any(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity in general or with particular types of physical activity such as active travel (walking or cycling for transport). However, most studies in this field have been conducted in North America and Australia, and hypotheses about putative correlates should be tested in a(More)
BACKGROUND Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases,(More)
Natural experimental studies are often recommended as a way of understanding the health impact of policies and other large scale interventions. Although they have certain advantages over planned experiments, and may be the only option when it is impossible to manipulate exposure to the intervention, natural experimental studies are more susceptible to bias.(More)
BACKGROUND The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and(More)