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Software architecture describes the structure of a system, enabling more effective design, program understanding, and formal analysis. However, existing approaches decouple implementation code from architecture, allowing inconsistencies, causing confusion, violating architectural properties, and inhibiting software evolution. ArchJava is an extension to(More)
It has been broadly assumed that code clones are inherently bad and that eliminating clones by refactoring would solve the problems of code clones. To investigate the validity of this assumption, we developed a formal definition of clone evolution and built a clone genealogy tool that automatically extracts the history of code clones from a source code(More)
ÐThe artifacts constituting a software system often drift apart over time. We have developed the software reflexion model technique to help engineers perform various software engineering tasks by exploitingÐrather than removingÐthe drift between design and implementation. More specifically, the technique helps an engineer compare artifacts by summarizing(More)
Software engineers often use high-level models (for instance, box and arrow sketches) to reason and communicate about an existing software system. One problem with high-level models is that they are almost always inaccurate with respect to the system's source code. We have developed an approach that helps an engineer use a high-level model of the structure(More)
Object-oriented unit tests consist of sequences of method invocations. Behavior of an invocation depends on the method’s arguments and the state of the receiver at the beginning of the invocation. Correspondingly, generating unit tests involves two tasks: generating method sequences that build relevant receiverobject states and generating relevant method(More)
Explicitly stated program invariants can help programmers by characterizing certain aspects of program execution and identifying program properties that must be preserved when modifying code. Unfortunately, these invariants are usually absent from code. Previous work showed how to dynamically detect invariants from program traces by looking for patterns in(More)
In this paper we present our results and experiences of using symbolic model checking to study the specification of an aircraft collision avoidance system. Symbolic model checking has been highly successful when applied to hardware systems. We are interested in the question of whether or not model checking techniques can be applied to large software(More)
Although programmers frequently copy and paste code when they develop software, implications of common copy and paste (C&P) usage patterns have not been studied previously. We have conducted an ethnographic study in order to understand programmers' C&P programming practices and discover opportunities to assist common C&P usage patterns. We observed(More)
This is the first empirical study of the use of the C macro preprocessor, Cpp. To determine how the preprocessor is used in practice, this paper analyzes 26 packages comprising 1.4 million lines of publicly available C code. We determine the incidence of C preprocessor usage—whether in macro definitions, macro uses, or dependences upon macros— that is(More)