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Current theories are mixed with regard to the nature of mental representations following spatial description reading. Whereas some findings argue that individuals' representations are invariant following text-based, map-based, or first-person experience, other studies have suggested that representations can also exhibit considerable flexibility. In the(More)
Do readers encode the perceptual perspectives of characters during narrative comprehension? To address this question, we conducted two experiments using stories that sometimes described situations in which certain information was occluded from the protagonists' views. We generated two related hypotheses concerning the potential impact of occlusion events on(More)
Reading comprehension involves not just encoding information into memory, but also updating and revising what is already known or believed. For example, as narrative plots unfold, readers often must revise the expectations they have constructed from earlier portions of text to successfully comprehend later events. Evidence suggests that such revision is by(More)
During on-line language production, speakers rapidly select a sequence of words to express their desired meaning. The current study examines whether this lexical selection is also dependent on the existing activation of surface properties of the words. Such surface properties clearly matter in various forms of wordplay, including poetry and musical lyrics.(More)
Because different reference frames can be used to describe a simple spatial situation such as the relationship between two objects, spatial descriptions can be confusing and/or ambiguous. To reduce this difficulty, do people assume a particular reference frame when interpreting spatial descriptions? If so, does the makeup of the spatial scene affect this(More)
Previous studies indicate that the hippocampus is active during exercise, and that neurotrophin expression, receptor density, and survival of dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus can be modified by moderate voluntary exercise. The present study was designed to test the consequences of voluntary exercise on a hippocampal-related behavior.(More)
Emerging evidence suggests the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes could be explained by cognitive abilities. To investigate to what degree cognitive skills explain associations between health literacy, performance on common health tasks, and functional health status. Two face-to-face, structured interviews spaced a week apart with(More)
Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended discourse:(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the nature and cause of patients' misunderstanding common dosage instructions on prescription drug container labels. METHODS In-person cognitive interviews including a literacy assessment were conducted among 395 patients at one of three primary care clinics in Shreveport, Louisiana, Jackson, Michigan and Chicago, Illinois. Patients(More)
The relationship between literacy and health outcomes are well documented in adult medicine, yet specific causal pathways are not entirely clear. Despite an incomplete understanding of the problem, numerous interventions have already been implemented with variable success. Many of those who proposed earlier strategies assumed the problem to originate from(More)