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BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about short-term bacterial fluctuations in the human vagina. This study used PCR to assess the variability in concentrations of key vaginal bacteria in healthy women and the immediate response to antibiotic treatment in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Twenty-two women assessed for BV using(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16-35 years) who reported(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of the causative agents of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. Cultures remain negative in a substantial number of IFI cases. Accordingly, species identification from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens by molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation(More)
Over 100 years ago, Robert Koch introduced his ideas about how to prove a causal relationship between a microorganism and a disease. Koch's postulates created a scientific standard for causal evidence that established the credibility of microbes as pathogens and led to the development of modern microbiology. In more recent times, Koch's postulates have(More)
The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new(More)
Infection with voriconazole-resistant fungi may become problematic, because organisms with decreased susceptibility have been noted. Breakthrough fungal infections occurred in 13 of 139 patients who received voriconazole at our center during the period of September 1998 through September 2003. Zygomycetes were found in 6 patients, and Candida glabrata(More)
Molecular methods are increasingly used to identify microbes in clinical samples. A common technical problem with PCR is failed amplification due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Initial attempts at amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from inoculated blood culture media failed for this reason. The inhibitor persisted, despite numerous attempts to(More)
Meningitis occurs in one-third to one-half of patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis, but mass lesions have rarely been described; these lesions are usually found at autopsy. We report six cases of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with central nervous system (CNS) abscesses. Four patients had cerebellar involvement, and two had spinal cord(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains challenging. Culture and histopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are useful but have suboptimal sensitivity and in the case of culture may require several days for fungal growth to be evident. Detection of Aspergillus DNA in BAL fluid by quantitative PCR(More)