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BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis affects millions of women and is associated with several serious health conditions. The cause of bacterial vaginosis remains poorly understood despite numerous studies based on cultures. Bacteria in microbial communities can be identified without cultivation by characterizing their ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. METHODS We(More)
Several novel bacterial species have been detected in subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by using broad-range PCR assays, but this approach is insensitive for detecting minority species. We developed a series of taxon-directed 16S rRNA gene PCR assays for more sensitive detection of key vaginal bacteria. We sought to determine the prevalence of each(More)
Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using broad-range bacterial PCR methods such as consensus sequence 16S rRNA gene PCR, but their role in BV remains poorly defined. We describe changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations following metronidazole therapy for BV. Vaginal swabs were collected from women with BV(More)
Infection with voriconazole-resistant fungi may become problematic, because organisms with decreased susceptibility have been noted. Breakthrough fungal infections occurred in 13 of 139 patients who received voriconazole at our center during the period of September 1998 through September 2003. Zygomycetes were found in 6 patients, and Candida glabrata(More)
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with(More)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common syndrome associated with numerous adverse health outcomes in women. Despite its medical importance, the etiology and microbial ecology of BV remain poorly understood. We used broad-range PCR to census the community structure of the healthy and BV-affected vaginal microbial ecosystems and synthesized current publicly(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16-35 years) who reported(More)
Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with genital HIV-1 shedding; however, the effect of specific vaginal bacterial species has not been assessed. We tested cervicovaginal lavage from HIV-1-seropositive women for common Lactobacillus species: L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and seven BV-associated species: BVAB1, BVAB2, BVAB3, Leptotrichia, Sneathia,(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of the causative agents of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. Cultures remain negative in a substantial number of IFI cases. Accordingly, species identification from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens by molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation(More)