David Mwakagile

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BACKGROUND In HIV-1-infected women, poor micronutrient status has been associated with faster progression of HIV-1 disease and adverse birth outcomes. We assessed the effects of vitamin A and multivitamins on birth outcomes in such women. METHODS In Tanzania, 1075 HIV-1-infected pregnant women at between 12 and 27 weeks' gestation received placebo(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether genotypes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, C, or D or intersubtype recombinants have the same probability of being transmitted from mother to child. METHODS We determined the HIV-1 genetic subtype and maternal risk factors of 51 matched transmitting and nontransmitting mothers from Tanzania. The(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies suggest that poor nutritional status among HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission of HIV. METHODS We randomized 1083 pregnant women infected with HIV-1 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of supplements of vitamin A and/or multivitamins(More)
Multiple subtypes of HIV-1 have been identified; however, there is little data on the relative transmissibility of viruses belonging to different subtypes. A matched case-control study addressed whether viruses with different long terminal repeat (LTR) subtypes were transmitted equally from mother to infant. The LTR subtype was determined for 45 matched(More)
Retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contain two RNA strands per virion, and recombination can occur frequently during reverse transcription. Recombination may occur between HIV-1 genomes of the same subtype or among genomes of two or more distinct subtypes present in an individual. In the current study, we found that(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the envelope V3 region from HIV-1 subtypes A, C or D had the same probability of being present in intersubtype recombinant genomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS The envelope C2-C5 and the gag p24-p7 regions from one hundred infants infected perinatally in Tanzania were compared using phylogenetic and recombination analysis. Exact(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate sex specific sexual behaviour in youths visiting a youth clinic for sexual and reproductive health in Dar es Saalam. METHODS A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of youths between 10 and 24 years of age attending the youth health clinic in Dar es Saalam. The clinical investigation included testing for syphilis and(More)
It is becoming increasingly important to identify and to study human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) with evidence of epidemic spread, since mosaic strains arise frequently, especially in populations where multiple subtypes cocirculate. We describe the almost complete nucleotide sequence of 3 subtype C and D(More)
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women (PW) attending a primary health care antenatal clinic (ANC) in metropolitan Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a randomly selected sample of PW in their second or third trimesters were invited to participate at their first visit. They were interviewed(More)