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OBJECTIVE To determine whether genotypes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, C, or D or intersubtype recombinants have the same probability of being transmitted from mother to child. METHODS We determined the HIV-1 genetic subtype and maternal risk factors of 51 matched transmitting and nontransmitting mothers from Tanzania. The(More)
BACKGROUND In HIV-1-infected women, poor micronutrient status has been associated with faster progression of HIV-1 disease and adverse birth outcomes. We assessed the effects of vitamin A and multivitamins on birth outcomes in such women. METHODS In Tanzania, 1075 HIV-1-infected pregnant women at between 12 and 27 weeks' gestation received placebo(More)
Multiple subtypes of HIV-1 have been identified; however, there is little data on the relative transmissibility of viruses belonging to different subtypes. A matched case-control study addressed whether viruses with different long terminal repeat (LTR) subtypes were transmitted equally from mother to infant. The LTR subtype was determined for 45 matched(More)
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women (PW) attending a primary health care antenatal clinic (ANC) in metropolitan Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a randomly selected sample of PW in their second or third trimesters were invited to participate at their first visit. They were interviewed(More)
Retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contain two RNA strands per virion, and recombination can occur frequently during reverse transcription. Recombination may occur between HIV-1 genomes of the same subtype or among genomes of two or more distinct subtypes present in an individual. In the current study, we found that(More)
It is becoming increasingly important to identify and to study human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) with evidence of epidemic spread, since mosaic strains arise frequently, especially in populations where multiple subtypes cocirculate. We describe the almost complete nucleotide sequence of 3 subtype C and D(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies suggest that poor nutritional status among HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission of HIV. METHODS We randomized 1083 pregnant women infected with HIV-1 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of supplements of vitamin A and/or multivitamins(More)
HIV-1 V3 serotyping is used to classify immunodeficiency viruses on the basis of antibody binding to V3 peptides derived from env genetic subtypes. Although it shows a reasonable overlap, it has been reported to be distinct from viral genetic subtypes. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of HIV-1 serotyping to predict genetic subtypes in(More)
Samples from infants infected in-utero by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, C, D, and recombinants from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were examined for the presence of viral genetic quasispecies. HIV-1 envelope diversity was measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected within the first 48 h of life from 53 infants.(More)