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P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligatory flavoprotein intermediate that transfers electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Although mouse Por gene ablation causes embryonic lethality, POR missense mutations cause disordered steroidogenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and Antley-Bixler(More)
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic bilateral lesions, typically in the brainstem and basal ganglia. It usually presents in infancy and is genetically heterogeneous, but most individuals with mitochondrial complex IV (or cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency have mutations in the biogenesis factor SURF1. We studied(More)
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS) is a developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism with gingival enlargement, intellectual disability, hypoplasia or aplasia of nails and terminal phalanges, and hypertrichosis. We report that heterozygous missense mutations in KCNH1 account for a considerable proportion of ZLS. KCNH1 encodes the voltage-gated(More)
Warburg Micro syndrome and Martsolf syndrome (MS) are heterogeneous autosomal-recessive developmental disorders characterized by brain, eye, and endocrine abnormalities. Causative biallelic germline mutations have been identified in RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, or RAB18, each of which encode proteins involved in membrane trafficking. This report provides an up to(More)
This review article aims to guide the clinician in establishing a diagnosis in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), presenting antenatally or postnatally. ACC may be isolated, or occur in association with other neuroanatomical lesions and/or congenital anomalies, and has many different genetic causes. Neuropsychological outcome varies(More)
Submicroscopic copy-number imbalances contribute significantly to the genetic etiology of human disease. Here, we report a novel microduplication hot spot at Xp11.22 identified in six unrelated families with predominantly nonsyndromic XLMR. All duplications segregate with the disease, including the large families MRX17 and MRX31. The minimal, commonly(More)
The type IV Waardenburg syndrome (WS4), also referred to as Shah-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease, is characterised by the association of Waardenburg features (WS, depigmentation and deafness) and the absence of enteric ganglia in the distal part of the intestine (Hirschsprung disease). Mutations in the EDN3, EDNRB, and SOX10 genes(More)
The syntrophins and dystrobrevins are members of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, and are thought to function as modular adaptors for signalling proteins recruited to the sarcolemmal membrane. We have characterised the expression of the syntrophins (alpha-, beta1-, and beta2-) and alpha-dystrobrevin by immunohistochemistry in normal human muscle(More)
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare cancer predisposition, which is characterized by the presence of hamartomatous polyposis and mucocutaneous pigmentation. A significant proportion of both familial and sporadic forms of this disorder are associated with mutations in the STK11 (serine/threonine kinase 11)/LKB1 gene. In this report we present a series of(More)
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a recently delineated mental retardation (MR)-multiple congenital anomaly syndrome, characterized by typical facies, severe MR, epilepsy, and variable congenital malformations, including Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), genital anomalies, congenital heart disease (CHD), and agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). It is caused by de(More)