Learn More
B LYMPHOCYTES are key participants in the immune response because of their specificity, their ability to take up and present antigens to T cells, and their capacity to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. To limit reactivity to self antigens, autospecific B cells can be functionally inactivated or deleted. Developing B cells that react with membrane(More)
Wound healing is a complex process that involves inflammation, apoptosis, growth, and tissue remodeling. The autoimmune-prone inbred mouse strain MRL/+ manifests accelerated and extensive healing to ear punch wounds, suggesting a link between immune defects and wound healing. Prior studies with lupus-prone mice have shown that hematopoietic cells of(More)
A central paradigm of immunology is clonal selection: lymphocytes displaying clonally distributed antigen receptors are generated and subsequently selected by antigen for growth or elimination. Here we show that in mice transgenic for anti-H-2Kk,b antibody genes, in which a homogeneous clone of developing B cells can be analyzed for the outcome of(More)
The effect of the autoimmune prone MRL/lpr (H-2k) genetic background on central B cell tolerance was studied in mice bearing 3-83 (anti-H-2Kk) Ig heavy and light chain transgenes. B cells bearing the dominant, transgene-encoded anti-H-2Kk specificity were tolerized appropriately on the MRL/lpr genetic background. Nevertheless, mice developed disease traits(More)
MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) is a 196-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase that, in addition to regulating the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is involved in the control of cell motility. MEKK1(-/-) mice are defective in eyelid closure, a TGFalpha-directed process involving the migration of epithelial cells. MEKK1 expression in(More)
The mechanisms that establish immune tolerance in immature and mature B cells appear to be distinct. Membrane-bound autoantigen is thought to induce developmental arrest and receptor editing in immature B cells, whereas mature B cells have shortened lifespans when exposed to the same stimulus. In this study, we used Emu-bcl-2-22 transgenic (Tg) mice to test(More)
Ligation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) or of c-Kit stimulates cytokine production in mast cells. We show that MEK kinase 2 (MEKK2), a MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) that regulates the JNK and ERK5 pathways, is required for cytokine production in embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived mast cells (ESMC). Targeted disruption of the MEKK2 or MEKK1 gene(More)
Peripheral B cell tolerance was studied in mice of the autoimmune-prone, Fas-deficient MRL/ lpr.H-2(d) genetic background by introducing a transgene that directs expression of membrane-bound H-2Kb antigen to liver and kidney (MT-Kb) and a second transgene encoding antibody reactive with this antigen (3-83mu delta, anti-Kk,b). Control immunoglobulin(More)
Black holes undergoing accretion are thought to emit the bulk of their power in the X-ray band by releasing the gravitational potential energy of the infalling matter. At the same time, they are capable of producing highly collimated jets of energy and particles flowing out of the system with relativistic velocities. Here we show that the 10-solar-mass(More)