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Inhalation injury is associated with severe pulmonary complications as inhaled products of combustion cause lung inflammation and loss of natural defenses. A bronchoscopic grading for inhalation injury has been proposed but has not yet been validated in burn patients. In this study, the authors evaluated whether bronchoscopic grading of injury clinically(More)
RATIONALE Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease is an increasingly common and chronically debilitating problem. Several host traits have been suggested or confirmed as risk factors. Potential environmental and behavioral risk factors have also been proposed. Few have been evaluated in comparative studies. OBJECTIVES To determine if aerosol-generating(More)
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication of ventilatory support for patients with acute respiratory failure and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. Awareness of the microbiology of VAP is essential for selecting optimal antibiotic therapy and improving these outcomes. The specific microbial causes of VAP are(More)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) involves an intense inflammatory response in the lungs, with accumulation of both pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Our goal was to determine how the balance between pro- and antiinflammatory mediators in the lungs changes before and after the onset of ARDS. We identified(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the use of the medical futility rationale in do-not-attempt-resuscitation (DNAR) orders written for medical inpatients. DESIGN Structured interviews with medical residents. METHODS Second- and third-year internal medicine residents (n = 44) were telephoned weekly and briefly interviewed about each patient who received a DNAR order(More)
Fas (CD95, APO-1) is regarded as the prototypical cell death receptor of the TNFR superfamily. Fas-induced apoptosis is generally considered to be a noninflammatory process, contributing to the silent resolution of immune and inflammatory responses. However, accumulating evidence indicates that Fas may also induce cellular activation signals. We(More)
Detecting differentially expressed proteins is a key goal of proteomics. We describe a label-free method, the spectral index, for analyzing relative protein abundance in large-scale data sets derived from biological samples by shotgun proteomics. The spectral index is comprised of two biochemically plausible features: relative protein abundance (assessed by(More)