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Microsatellite enrichment is an excess of repetitive sequences characteristic to all studied eukaryotes. It is thought to result from the accumulated effects of replication slippage mutations. Enrichment is commonly measured as the ratio of the observed frequency of microsatellites to the frequency expected to result from random association of nucleotides.(More)
BACKGROUND Although several studies have shown a positive association between evidence of anti-adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) antibodies (Ad-36 exposure) and (1) obesity and (2) serum cholesterol in animals, there is limited research demonstrating this association in humans. There is also limited research on transmission, presentation and demographics of Ad-36(More)
Prevailing evolutionary forces are typically deduced from the pattern of differences in synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, under the assumption of neutrality in the absence of amino acid change. We determined the complete sequence of ten vesicular stomatitis virus populations evolving under positive selection. A significant number of the mutations(More)
The rapid identification of bacteria and fungi directly from the blood of patients with suspected bloodstream infections aids in diagnosis and guides treatment decisions. The development of an automated, rapid, and sensitive molecular technology capable of detecting the diverse agents of such infections at low titers has been challenging, due in part to the(More)
The reason for genetic exchange remains a crucial question in evolutionary biology. Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1 is a highly competent and recombinogenic bacterium. We compared the parallel evolution of wild-type and engineered noncompetent lineages of A. baylyi in the laboratory. If transformability were to result in an evolutionary benefit, it was(More)
International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the(More)
Simultaneous testing for detection of infectious pathogens that cause similar symptoms (e.g., acute respiratory infections) is invaluable for patient treatment, outbreak prevention, and efficient use of antibiotic and antiviral agents. In addition, such testing may provide information regarding possible coinfections or induced secondary infections, such as(More)
BACKGROUND Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating viral species, and for vaccine strain selection. We have developed one such approach based on previously described broad-range reverse transcription(More)
The exponential growth of pathogen nucleic acid sequences available in public domain databases has invited their direct use in pathogen detection, identification, and surveillance strategies. DNA microarray technology has offered the potential for the direct DNA sequence analysis of a broad spectrum of pathogens of interest. However, to achieve the(More)