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Fourier transforms of fractional order a are defined in a manner such that the common Fourier transform is a special case with order a = 1. An optical interpretation is provided in terms of quadratic graded index media and discussed from both wave and ray viewpoints. Several mathematical properties are derived. It is often the case that an operation(More)
The linear transform kernel for fractional Fourier transforms is derived. The spatial resolution and the space-bandwidth product for propagation in graded-index media are discussed in direct relation to fractional Fourier transforms, and numerical examples are presented. It is shown how fractional Fourier transforms can be made the basis of generalized(More)
There exists a fractional Fourier-transform relation between the amplitude distributions of light on two spherical surfaces of given radii and separation. The propagation of light can be viewed as a process of continual fractional Fourier transformation. As light propagates, its amplitude distribution evolves through fractional transforms of increasing(More)
In the Wigner domain of a one-dimensional function, a certain chirp term represents a rotated line delta function. On the other hand, a fractional Fourier transform (FRT) can be associated with a rotation of the Wigner-distribution function by an angle connected with the FRT order. Thus with the FRT tool a chirp and a delta function can be transformed one(More)
The complex amplitude distributions on two spherical reference surfaces of given curvature and spacing are simply related by a fractional Fourier transform. The order of the fractional Fourier transform is proportional to the Gouy phase shift between the two surfaces. This result provides new insight into wave propagation and spherical mirror resonators as(More)
Two definitions of a fractional Fourier transform have been proposed previously. One is based on the propagation of a wave field through a graded-index medium, and the other is based on rotating a function's Wigner distribution. It is shown that both definitions are equivalent. An important result of this equivalency is that the Wigner distribution of a(More)
Multistage interconnection architectures can provide an arbitrary pattern of one-to-one connections between N input and N output channels. We show that bitonic multistage architectures, such as the Banyan architecture, result in the fundamentally least possible growth of system size with increasing N. In this Letter we are concerned with optical(More)
The analogy between optical one-to-one point transformations and optical one-to-one interconnections is discussed. Methods for performing both operations are reviewed and compared. The multifacet and multistage architectures have the flexibility to implement any arbitrary one-to-one transformation or interconnection pattern. The former would be preferred(More)