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It is well established that performance is influenced by pressure, but the underlying mechanisms of the pressure-performance relationship are poorly understood. To address this important issue, the current experiment evaluated psychological, physiological, and kinematic factors as mediators of the pressure-performance relationship. Psychological,(More)
A baroreflex mechanism may explain hypertensive hypoalgesia. At rest, arterial baroreceptors are stimulated during the systolic upstroke of the pressure pulse wave. This study examined the effects of naturally occurring variations in baroreceptor activity during the cardiac cycle on an objective measure of pain, the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR). Two(More)
In 2 experiments, the effects of mental stress on limb stiffness were investigated. The relative contribution to arm stiffness of individual muscle activity, co-contraction, muscle reflexes, and postural adjustments were examined. In each experiment, participants (N = 24, Experiment 1; N = 16, Experiment 2) held their supinated hand under a tray that they(More)
Hypertension is characterized by cognitive deficits. As evidence for impaired psychomotor speed, including slower reaction times, is mixed, we aimed to provide a detailed investigation of simple reaction time in hypertension. Pre-motor and motor reaction times were measured across the cardiac cycle in 30 hypertensives and 29 normotensives to determine the(More)
Carotid baroreceptor stimulation has been shown to dampen pain. This study tested, in 40 normotensive adults, the hypothesis that pain is lower during systole when arterial baroreceptor stimulation is maximal than diastole when stimulation is minimal. The sural nerve was stimulated electrocutaneously to obtain a nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold,(More)
Although it is well established that performance is influenced by competitive pressure, our understanding of the mechanisms which underlie the pressure-performance relationship is limited. The current experiment examined mediators of the relationship between competitive pressure and motor skill performance of experts. Psychological, physiological, and(More)
Catastrophizing is reliably associated with increased reports of clinical and experimental pain. To test the hypothesis that catastrophizing may heighten pain experience by increasing nociceptive transmission through spinal gating mechanisms, the present study examined catastrophizing as a predictor of pain ratings and nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR)(More)
In 2010, a tissue-engineered trachea was transplanted into a 10-year-old child using a decellularized deceased donor trachea repopulated with the recipient's respiratory epithelium and mesenchymal stromal cells. We report the child's clinical progress, tracheal epithelialization and costs over the 4 years. A chronology of events was derived from clinical(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment for refractory epilepsy. Using a seizure-prone Fast-kindling rat strain with known comorbid behavioral features, we investigated the effects of VNS on spatial memory, epileptogenesis, kindled seizures and body weight. Electrodes were implanted in both amygdalae and around the left vagus nerve of 17(More)
Inhibition of the nociceptive flexion reflex during systole could be due to activation of the arterial baroreceptors. Physiological arousal, characterized by raised blood pressure, increases afferent activity from the arterial baroreceptors but attenuates the baroreflex. This study examined the effects of arousal on systolic inhibition of the nociceptive(More)