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Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe strategies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental(More)
PARAMICS is a <i>PARA</i>llel <i>MIC</i>roscopic Traffic Simulator which is, to our knowledge, the most powerful of its type in the world. The simulator can model around 200,000 vehicles on around 7,000 roads (taken from real road traffic network data) at faster than 'real-time' rates, making use of 16K processor TMC Connection Machine CM-200 for the(More)
Experimental traumatic brain injury studies have shown that cerebral hyperglycolysis is a pathophysiological response to injury-induced ionic and neurochemical cascades. This finding has important implications regarding cellular viability, vulnerability to secondary insults, and the functional capability of affected regions. Prior to this study,(More)
Brain trauma is accompanied by regional alterations of brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates and possible energy crisis. We hypothesize that microdialysis markers of energy crisis are present during the critical period of intensive care despite the absence of brain ischemia. In all, 19 brain injury patients (mean GCS 6) underwent combined positron(More)
Utilizing [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), we studied the correlation between CMRglc and the level of consciousness within the first month following human traumatic brain injury. Forty-three FDG-PET scans obtained on 42 mild to severely head-injured patients were quantitatively analyzed for the determination of regional(More)
OBJECT Progressive intracranial hemorrhage after head injury is often observed on serial computerized tomography (CT) scans but its significance is uncertain. In this study, patients in whom two CT scans were obtained within 24 hours of injury were analyzed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical significance of progressive hemorrhagic injury(More)
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients often report memory difficulties, as well as reduced information processing speed. However, it remains unclear the extent to which these deficits contribute to functional impairment. In the present study, we compared the relative contribution of verbal memory and information processing speed to functional(More)
This article examines 3 contexts in which moderate or severe traumatic brain injury can be approached. The epidemiologic background of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury is presented, with particular attention paid to new findings from the study of a national hospital inpatient database. We review aspects of neuroimaging and how new imaging(More)
Literature exists to suggest that the severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is positively associated with the severity of functional impairment. However, potential mediators of this relationship have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we evaluated a model hypothesized to explain the relationship between TBI severity and functional(More)
Approximately 2 million head injuries occur each year in the United States, producing a brain injury rate of 175 to 200 per 100,000 population and causing as many as 56,000 deaths per year. The economic and emotional toll of this public health burden is staggering. By identifying risk factors, perhaps effective legislation and environmental and educational(More)