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We report a systematic relationship between sound-frequency tuning and sensitivity to interaural time delays for neurons in the midbrain nucleus of the inferior colliculus; neurons with relatively low best frequencies (BFs) showed response peaks at long delays, whereas neurons with relatively high BFs showed response peaks at short delays. The consequence(More)
Microsecond differences in the arrival time of a sound at the two ears (interaural time differences, ITDs) are the main cue for localizing low-frequency sounds in space. Traditionally, ITDs are thought to be encoded by an array of coincidence-detector neurons, receiving excitatory inputs from the two ears via axons of variable length ('delay lines'), to(More)
Ever since Pliny the Elder coined the term tinnitus, the perception of sound in the absence of an external sound source has remained enigmatic. Traditional theories assume that tinnitus is triggered by cochlear damage, but many tinnitus patients present with a normal audiogram, i.e., with no direct signs of cochlear damage. Here, we report that in human(More)
Mammals can hear sounds extending over a vast range of sound levels with remarkable accuracy. How auditory neurons code sound level over such a range is unclear; firing rates of individual neurons increase with sound level over only a very limited portion of the full range of hearing. We show that neurons in the auditory midbrain of the guinea pig adjust(More)
A sound, depending on the position of its source, can take more time to reach one ear than the other. This interaural (between the ears) time difference (ITD) provides a major cue for determining the source location. Many auditory neurons are sensitive to ITDs, but the means by which such neurons represent ITD is a contentious issue. Recent studies question(More)
The ability to determine the location of a sound source is fundamental to hearing. However, auditory space is not represented in any systematic manner on the basilar membrane of the cochlea, the sensory surface of the receptor organ for hearing. Understanding the means by which sensitivity to spatial cues is computed in central neurons can therefore(More)
Responses of low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized guinea pigs were studied with binaural beats to assess their mean best interaural phase (BP) to a range of stimulating frequencies. Phase plots (stimulating frequency vs BP) were produced, from which measures of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) for each(More)
The current dominant model of binaural sound localization proposes that the lateral position of a sound source is determined by the position of maximal activation within an array of binaural coincidence-detector neurons that are tuned to different interaural time differences (ITDs). The tuning of a neuron for an ITD is determined by the difference in axonal(More)
We investigated spike-frequency adaptation of neurons sensitive to interaural phase disparities (IPDs) in the inferior colliculus (IC) of urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs using a stimulus paradigm designed to exclude the influence of adaptation below the level of binaural integration. The IPD-step stimulus consists of a binaural 3,000-ms tone, in which the(More)
Monaural and binaural response properties of single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the guinea pig were investigated. Neurones were classified according to the effect of monaural stimulation of either ear alone and the effect of binaural stimulation. The majority (309/334) of IC units were excited (E) by stimulation of the contralateral ear, of(More)