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Microsecond differences in the arrival time of a sound at the two ears (interaural time differences, ITDs) are the main cue for localizing low-frequency sounds in space. Traditionally, ITDs are thought to be encoded by an array of coincidence-detector neurons, receiving excitatory inputs from the two ears via axons of variable length ('delay lines'), to(More)
The ability to determine the location of a sound source is fundamental to hearing. However, auditory space is not represented in any systematic manner on the basilar membrane of the cochlea, the sensory surface of the receptor organ for hearing. Understanding the means by which sensitivity to spatial cues is computed in central neurons can therefore(More)
Ever since Pliny the Elder coined the term tinnitus, the perception of sound in the absence of an external sound source has remained enigmatic. Traditional theories assume that tinnitus is triggered by cochlear damage, but many tinnitus patients present with a normal audiogram, i.e., with no direct signs of cochlear damage. Here, we report that in human(More)
Mammals can hear sounds extending over a vast range of sound levels with remarkable accuracy. How auditory neurons code sound level over such a range is unclear; firing rates of individual neurons increase with sound level over only a very limited portion of the full range of hearing. We show that neurons in the auditory midbrain of the guinea pig adjust(More)
We investigated the role of GABAergic inhibition on the responses of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in anesthetized guinea pigs. Responses to static and dynamic ITDs were obtained before, during, and after recovery from ionotophoretic application of GABA, or antagonists to the GABA(A) receptor gabazine and(More)
Responses of low characteristic-frequency (CF) neurons in the inferior colliculus were obtained to amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency tones in which the modulation rate was equal to the neuron's CF. Despite all spectral components lying outside the pure tone-evoked response areas, discharge rates were modulated by the AM signals. Introducing a(More)
The current dominant model of binaural sound localization proposes that the lateral position of a sound source is determined by the position of maximal activation within an array of binaural coincidence-detector neurons that are tuned to different interaural time differences (ITDs). The tuning of a neuron for an ITD is determined by the difference in axonal(More)
Auditory neurons must represent accurately a wide range of sound levels using firing rates that vary over a far narrower range of levels. Recently, we demonstrated that this "dynamic range problem" is lessened by neural adaptation, whereby neurons adjust their input-output functions for sound level according to the prevailing distribution of levels. These(More)
Determining the location of a sound source requires the use of binaural hearing--information about a sound at the two ears converges onto neurones in the auditory brainstem to create a binaural representation. The main binaural cue used by many mammals to locate a sound source is the interaural time difference, or ITD. For over 50 years a single model has(More)