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We report a systematic relationship between sound-frequency tuning and sensitivity to interaural time delays for neurons in the midbrain nucleus of the inferior colliculus; neurons with relatively low best frequencies (BFs) showed response peaks at long delays, whereas neurons with relatively high BFs showed response peaks at short delays. The consequence(More)
Microsecond differences in the arrival time of a sound at the two ears (interaural time differences, ITDs) are the main cue for localizing low-frequency sounds in space. Traditionally, ITDs are thought to be encoded by an array of coincidence-detector neurons, receiving excitatory inputs from the two ears via axons of variable length ('delay lines'), to(More)
Ever since Pliny the Elder coined the term tinnitus, the perception of sound in the absence of an external sound source has remained enigmatic. Traditional theories assume that tinnitus is triggered by cochlear damage, but many tinnitus patients present with a normal audiogram, i.e., with no direct signs of cochlear damage. Here, we report that in human(More)
Mammals can hear sounds extending over a vast range of sound levels with remarkable accuracy. How auditory neurons code sound level over such a range is unclear; firing rates of individual neurons increase with sound level over only a very limited portion of the full range of hearing. We show that neurons in the auditory midbrain of the guinea pig adjust(More)
A sound, depending on the position of its source, can take more time to reach one ear than the other. This interaural (between the ears) time difference (ITD) provides a major cue for determining the source location. Many auditory neurons are sensitive to ITDs, but the means by which such neurons represent ITD is a contentious issue. Recent studies question(More)
The ability to determine the location of a sound source is fundamental to hearing. However, auditory space is not represented in any systematic manner on the basilar membrane of the cochlea, the sensory surface of the receptor organ for hearing. Understanding the means by which sensitivity to spatial cues is computed in central neurons can therefore(More)
Responses of low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized guinea pigs were studied with binaural beats to assess their mean best interaural phase (BP) to a range of stimulating frequencies. Phase plots (stimulating frequency vs BP) were produced, from which measures of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) for each(More)
Responses to sound stimuli that humans perceive as moving were obtained for 89 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of urethan-anesthetized guinea pigs. Triangular and sinusoidal interaural phase modulation (IPM), which produced dynamically varying interaural phase disparities (IPDs), was used to present stimuli with different depths, directions,(More)
We investigated the role of GABAergic inhibition on the responses of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in anesthetized guinea pigs. Responses to static and dynamic ITDs were obtained before, during, and after recovery from ionotophoretic application of GABA, or antagonists to the GABA(A) receptor gabazine and(More)
In everyday life we continually need to detect signals against a background of interfering noise (the "cocktail party effect"): a task that is much easier to accomplish using two ears. The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) measures the ability of listeners to use a difference in binaural attributes to segregate sound sources and thus improve their(More)