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Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation as well as egg production and egg-to-adult viability. We raised(More)
We investigated whether spiders fed lipid-rich rather than protein-rich prey elevate metabolism to avoid carrying excessive lipid deposits, or whether they store ingested lipids as a buffer against possible future starvation. We fed wolf spiders (Pardosa prativaga) prey of different lipid:protein compositions and measured the metabolic rate of spiders using(More)
Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to(More)
There has been considerable recent interest in the biology of spiders that specialise on ants as prey, but previous studies have tended to envisage the level of adaptation as being to ants as a group. In this paper, we provide evidence that Zodarion germanicum is a spider that has dietary and venom adaptations by which it targets a particular subset of(More)
Prey nutrient quality determines predator performance. Polyphagous predators can address nutritional challenges by targeting prey with specific nutrient composition, but prey-specialised predators (e.g., ant-eaters), must obtain all nutrients from limited array of prey. Analysis of published data on prey specificity of European ant-eating spiders showed(More)
Feeding generalists typically occupy broad ecological niches and so are potentially pre-adapted to a range of novel food objects. In northern Europe, the slug Arion lusitanicus has spread rapidly as an invasive species and a serious horticultural and agricultural pest. We used nutritional geometry to analyze nutrient balancing capabilities and consequences(More)
OBJECTIVE The Protein-Leverage Hypothesis proposes that humans regulate their intake of macronutrients and that protein intake is prioritized over fat and carbohydrate intake, causing excess energy ingestion when diets contain low %protein. Here we test in a model animal, the mouse: (i) the extent to which intakes of protein and carbohydrate are regulated;(More)
Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and(More)
In recent years it has become clear that intraguild predation (where predators feed on other predators) has important consequences for food webs, and yet very little is known about its nutritional or functional bases. In the most detailed study of the nutritional basis of foraging by a predator to date, we used geometrical analysis to test the ability of(More)
It is well known that secondary chemicals produced at one trophic level may affect organisms at subsequent levels of the food chain. Effects of nutrient supplements may also propagate through trophic levels, but the mechanisms here are less clear. We tested the hypothesis that predators can be affected by the nutrient composition of the prey's food. Wolf(More)