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BACKGROUND Studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia suffer from memory impairments. In this study, we combined proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to clarify the neurobiology of memory deficits in schizophrenia. METHODS We used single-voxel MRS acquired in the left hippocampus and(More)
This meta-analysis evaluates alterations of neurometabolites in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PubMed was searched to find controlled studies evaluating N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho) and Creatine (Cr) assessed with ((1))H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder up to September 2010.(More)
IMPORTANCE Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been postulated to be a key pathophysiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE To evaluate hippocampal volumetric measures and neurometabolites in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and the correlations between these markers. Our a priori hypothesis was that glutamate levels would(More)
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroimaging and electrophysiologic studies have consistently provided evidence of impairment in anterior cingulate cortex/medial frontal cortex function in people with schizophrenia. In this study, we sought to clarify the nature of this abnormality by combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) with functional magnetic resonance(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) allows the non-invasive measurement of several metabolites, including N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), an amino acid exclusively synthesized in the mitochondria of neurons, and glutamate, an amino acid involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolism. In view of recent postmortem studies in schizophrenia (SZ)(More)
RATIONALE Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects(More)
In brain, monomeric immunoglobin G (IgG) is regarded as quiescent and only poised to initiate potentially injurious inflammatory reactions via immune complex formation associated with phagocytosis and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in response to disease. Using rat hippocampal slice and microglial cultures, here we show instead that(More)
To study impaired goal-oriented behavior in schizophrenia (SZ), we used a delay discounting task, which consists of a series of choices between receiving a small immediate or larger delayed reward. Few studies of delay discounting have evaluated response consistency (R(2)), which is especially relevant in SZ because of documented inconsistency in task(More)
Cold pre-conditioning reduces subsequent brain injury in small animals but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. As hypothermia triggers systemic macrophage tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production and other neural pre-conditioning stimuli depend on this cytokine, we reasoned that microglia and TNF-α would be similarly involved with cold(More)