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Biological systems have very different internal ion compositions in comparison with their surrounding media. The difference is maintained by transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane and by internal stores. On the plasma membrane, we can classify these mechanisms into three types, pumps, porters, and channels. Channels have been extensively studied,(More)
We have isolated and characterized Petunia hybrida cv. Mitchell phenylacetaldehyde synthase (PAAS), which catalyzes the formation of phenylacetaldehyde, a constituent of floral scent. PAAS is a cytosolic homotetrameric enzyme that belongs to group II pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent amino-acid decarboxylases and shares extensive amino acid identity(More)
The self-referencing electrode technique was employed to noninvasively measure gradients of dissolved oxygen in the medium immediately surrounding developing mouse embryos and, thereby, characterized changes in oxygen consumption and utilization during development. A gradient of depleted oxygen surrounded each embryo and could be detected >50 microm from(More)
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a primary phytohormone that regulates multiple aspects of plant development. Because polar transport of IAA is an essential determinant of organogenesis and dynamic tropic growth, methods to monitor IAA movement in vivo are in demand. A self-referencing electrochemical microsensor was optimized to non-invasively measure(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) controls diverse functions in many cells and organs of animals. It is also produced in plants and has a variety of effects, but little is known about their underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we have discovered a role for NO in the regulation of pollen tube growth, a fast tip-growing cellular system. Pollen tubes must be precisely(More)
Plant culture in oxygen concentrations below ambient is known to stimulate vegetative growth, but apart from reports on increased leaf number and weight, little is known about development at subambient oxygen concentrations. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (cv. Columbia) plants were grown full term in pre-mixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of(More)
An early step in repair of the leech CNS is the appearance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity and NOS activity, but coincident generation of NO at the lesion after injury has not been shown. This is important because NO can regulate microglial cell motility and axon growth. Indirect measurement of NO with the standard citrulline(More)
Current techniques for characterizing biofilm physiology lack the signal filtering capability required for quantifying signals associated with real time biologically active transport. Though a great deal was learned from previous investigations, no results have been reported on the characterization of in vivo, real time biofilm flux using non-invasive(More)
Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) decorated with Au-coated Pd (Au/Pd) nanocubes are employed as electrochemical biosensors that exhibit excellent sensitivity (2.6 mA mM(-1) cm(-2)) and a low estimated detection limit (2.3 nM) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) in the amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Biofunctionalization of(More)
A self-referencing, polarographic, oxygen-selective microelectrode was developed for measuring oxygen fluxes from single cells. This technique is based on the translational movement of the microelectrode at a known frequency through an oxygen gradient, between known points. The differential current of the electrode was converted into a directional(More)