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An early step in repair of the leech CNS is the appearance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity and NOS activity, but coincident generation of NO at the lesion after injury has not been shown. This is important because NO can regulate microglial cell motility and axon growth. Indirect measurement of NO with the standard citrulline(More)
A self-referencing, polarographic, oxygen-selective microelectrode was developed for measuring oxygen fluxes from single cells. This technique is based on the translational movement of the microelectrode at a known frequency through an oxygen gradient, between known points. The differential current of the electrode was converted into a directional(More)
Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) decorated with Au-coated Pd (Au/Pd) nanocubes are employed as electrochemical biosensors that exhibit excellent sensitivity (2.6 mA mM(-1) cm(-2)) and a low estimated detection limit (2.3 nM) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) in the amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Biofunctionalization of(More)
Flooding/waterlogging is a major factor responsible for hypoxic stress in agriculture. The aim of this study was to develop an effective oxygen buffer with magnesium peroxide (MgO 2) to generate hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) and release bioavailable oxygen. MgO 2 provided a relatively stable level (approx. 300 mM) of bioavailable oxygen. The oxygen-buffer(More)
Single-celled spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii undergo gravity-directed cell polarity development that is driven by polar calcium currents. Here we present results that establish a role for nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling in transducing the stimulus of gravity to directed polarization of the spores. Application of specific NO donors and scavengers(More)
Gravity directs the early polar development in single cells of Ceratopteris richardii Brogn. It acts over a limited period of time during which it irreversibly determines the axis of the spore cell's development. A self-referencing calcium selective electrode was utilized to record the net movement of calcium across the cell membrane at different positions(More)
BACKGROUND Immediately after damage to the nervous system, a cascade of physical, physiological, and anatomical events lead to the collapse of neuronal function and often death. This progression of injury processes is called "secondary injury." In the spinal cord and brain, this loss in function and anatomy is largely irreversible, except at the earliest(More)
Quantification of neurotransmitter transport dynamics is hindered by a lack of sufficient tools to directly monitor bioactive flux under physiological conditions. Traditional techniques for studying neurotransmitter release/uptake require inferences from non-selective electrical recordings, are invasive/destructive, and/or suffer from poor temporal(More)
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Numerous spaceflight experiments have noted changes in the roots that are consistent with hypoxia in the root zone. These observations include general ultrastructure analysis and biochemical measurements to direct measurements of stress specific enzymes. In experiments that have monitored alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the data shows this hypoxically(More)