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Repair of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondria was thought limited to short-patch base excision repair (SP-BER) replacing a single nucleotide. However, certain oxidative lesions cannot be processed by SP-BER. Here we report that 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL), a major type of oxidized abasic site, inhibits replication by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase(More)
Many environmental metals are co-carcinogens, eliciting their effects via inhibition of DNA repair. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (Ape1) is the major mammalian abasic endonuclease and initiates repair of this cytotoxic/mutagenic lesion by incising the DNA backbone via a Mg(2+)-dependent reaction. In this study we examined the effects of arsenite(More)
To test the hypothesis that a smaller quantity of high intensity (HI) as opposed to a larger quantity of moderate intensity (MI) swim training would result in adaptations more specific to the short performance times of swimming competitions, two groups of elite university swimmers were tested before and after 6.5 weeks of specific HI or MI intermittent swim(More)
The magnitude of the health problem from diabetic neuropathies remains inadequately estimated due to the lack of prospective population-based studies employing standardized and validated assessments of the type and stage of neuropathy as compared with background frequency. All Rochester, Minnesota, residents with diabetes mellitus on January 1, 1986, were(More)
A high-resolution, regional passive seismic experiment in the Rio Grande rift region of the southwestern United States has produced new images of upper-mantle velocity structure and crust-mantle topography. Synthesizing these results with geochemical and other geophysical evidence reveals highly symmetric lower-crustal and upper-mantle lithosphere(More)
Genome instability is a characteristic of cancer and aging, and is a hallmark of the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome (WS). Evidence suggests that the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) contributes to the maintenance of genome integrity through its involvement in DNA repair. In particular, biochemical evidence indicates a role for WRN in base excision(More)
Oxidative DNA damage has been attributed to increased cancer incidence and premature aging phenotypes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unavoidable byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation and are the major contributors of endogenous oxidative damage. To prevent the negative effects of ROS, cells have developed DNA repair mechanisms designed to specifically(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in the coding sequence of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Instability affects both germline and somatic cells. Somatic instability increases with age and is tissue-specific. In particular, the CAG repeat sequence in the striatum, the brain region(More)
The jumonji (JMJ) family of histone demethylases are Fe2+- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases that are essential components of regulatory transcriptional chromatin complexes. These enzymes demethylate lysine residues in histones in a methylation-state and sequence-specific context. Considerable effort has been devoted to gaining a mechanistic(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansions. We show here that somatic TNR expansions are significantly reduced in several organs of R6/1 mice lacking exon 2 of Nei-like 1 (Neil1) (R6/1/Neil1(-/-)), when compared with R6/1/Neil1(+/+) mice. Somatic TNR expansion is measured by two(More)