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Smooth muscle's stress equals that of skeletal muscle with less myosin. Thus, under isometric conditions, smooth muscle myosin may spend a greater fraction of its cycle time attached to actin in a high force state (i.e. higher duty cycle). If so, then smooth muscle myosin may also have a higher duty cycle under unloaded conditions. To test this, we used an(More)
Myosin V, a double-headed molecular motor, transports organelles within cells by walking processively along actin, a process that requires coordination between the heads. To understand the mechanism underlying this coordination, processive runs of single myosin V molecules were perturbed by varying nucleotide content. Contrary to current views, our results(More)
Although it is generally believed that phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin is required before smooth muscle can develop force, it is not known if the overall degree of phosphorylation can also modulate the rate at which cross-bridges cycle. To address this question, an in vitro motility assay was used to observe the motion of single(More)
Thiadiazinones are cardiotonic agents that have potent, direct, and stereoselective actions on the myofilament response to Ca2+ in intact myocardium. Their mechanism of action is unknown. We studied the effects of racemic thiadiazinone, EMD 53998 (5-[1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-quinolyl]-6-meth yl-3,6- dihydro-2H-1,3,4-thiadiazin-2-one),(More)
Purified smooth muscle myosin in the in vitro motility assay propels actin filaments at 1/10 the velocity, yet produces 3-4 times more force than skeletal muscle myosin. At the level of a single myosin molecule, these differences in force and actin filament velocity may be reflected in the size and duration of single motion and force-generating events, or(More)
In smooth muscle, a cross-bridge mechanism is believed to be responsible for active force generation and fiber shortening. In the present studies, the viscoelastic and kinetic properties of the cross-bridge were probed by eliciting tension transients in response to small, rapid, step length changes (delta L = 0.3-1.0% Lcell in 2 ms). Tension transients were(More)
Several classes of the myosin superfamily are distinguished by their "double-headed" structure, where each head is a molecular motor capable of hydrolyzing ATP and interacting with actin to generate force and motion. The functional significance of this dimeric structure, however, has eluded investigators since its discovery in the late 1960s. Using an(More)
The double-headed myosin V molecular motor carries intracellular cargo processively along actin tracks in a hand-over-hand manner. To test this hypothesis at the molecular level, we observed single myosin V molecules that were differentially labeled with quantum dots having different emission spectra so that the position of each head could be identified(More)
Intracellular cargo transport requires microtubule-based motors, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein, and the actin-based myosin motors to maneuver through the challenges presented by the filamentous meshwork that comprises the cytoskeleton. Recent in vitro single molecule biophysical studies have begun to explore this process by characterizing what occurs as(More)
The active and passive isometric tension-length (internal circumference) relation of vascular smooth muscle has been investigated using a 100-200-micron lumen diameter artery from the rat mesenteric bed. Conditions were established under which maximal activation was obtained at all lengths. Below L0 (the length at which maximum tension, delta T0, was(More)