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Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies is not a simple issue. Although both processes harvest the energy in sunlight, they operate in distinctly different ways and produce different types of products: biomass or chemical fuels in the case of natural photosynthesis and nonstored electrical current in the case of photovoltaics. In order to(More)
The structure of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was determined at 3.1-A resolution by the molecular replacement method, using the Rhodopseudomonas viridis RC as the search structure. Atomic coordinates were refined with the difference Fourier method and restrained least-squares refinement techniques to a current R(More)
Electron transfer from P+QA-QB to form P+QAQB- was measured in Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26 reaction centers (RCs) where the native primary quinone, ubiquinone-10 (UQA), was replaced by 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MQA). The native secondary quinone, UQ-10, was retained as UQB. The difference spectrum of the semiquinone MQA- minus UQB- absorption(More)
The 3(') untranslated region (3(') UTR) of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) genomic RNA contains a cap-independent translation element (CITE), which includes a ribosome-binding structural element (RBSE) that participates in recruitment of the large ribosomal subunit. In addition, a large symmetric loop in the RBSE plays a key role in coordinating the incompatible(More)
The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center contains bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriopheophytin (Bph) cofactors that provide natural probes of electrostatic fields within this protein. We have examined the electrochromic responses of these cofactors, resolved during the lifetimes of the quinone anion states, P+QA-QB and P+QAQB-, and measured as a(More)
The molecular replacement method has been successfully used to provide a structure for the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides at 3.7 A resolution. Atomic coordinates derived from the R. viridis reaction center were used in the search structure. The crystallographic R-factor is 0.39 for reflections between 8 and 3.7 A. Validity of(More)
Solution state x-ray diffraction fingerprinting is demonstrated as a method for experimentally assessing the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Fourier transforms of coordinate data from MD simulations are used to produce reciprocal space "fingerprints" of atomic pair distance correlations that are characteristic of the ensemble and are the(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) is the plant photosynthetic reaction center that carries out the light driven oxidation of water. The water splitting reactions are catalyzed at a tetranuclear manganese cluster. The manganese stabilizing protein (MSP) of PSII stabilizes the manganese cluster and accelerates the rate of oxygen evolution. MSP can be removed from PSII,(More)
We report on synchrotron-based high-angle X-ray solution scattering measured to 2 A resolution for two synthetic DNA sequences for which there are conflicting X-ray crystal and solution NMR models. Our results demonstrate that high-angle X-ray scattering discriminates between differing X-ray crystal and NMR models for solution-state DNA and provides a(More)