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In spite of much effort, no one has succeeded in isolating and characterizing the enzyme(s) responsible for synthesis of cellulose, the major cell wall polymer of plants. We have characterized two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cDNA clones and identified one rice (Oryza sativa) cDNA that are homologs of the bacterial celA genes that encode the catalytic(More)
In animals, the small GTP-binding proteins, Rac and Rho, of the ras superfamily participate in the signal transduction pathway that regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report here on the characterization of two distinct cDNA clones isolated from a cotton fiber cDNA library that code for homologs of animal Rac proteins. Using(More)
The hypothesis that the herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) acts on plants and microorganisms by inhibiting synthesis of 5-enolpyruvyl-3-phosphoshikimate, a precursor to aromatic amino acids, was tested. Salmonella typhimurium was treated with ethyl methanesulfonate, and mutants mapping at the aroA locus, which encodes(More)
Phage T7 RNA polymerase has been used extensively in Escherichia coli for high-level expression of selected genes placed under the control of the phage T7 gene 10 promoter. We have constructed an analogous system for use in plastids of higher plants. A T7 RNA polymerase chimeric gene containing a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a tobacco(More)
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides containing six (alpha), seven (beta), or eight (gamma) glucose molecules, respectively. The cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGT), which produce CDs from starch, are found only in bacteria and are used in batch fermentors with hydrolyzed starch to produce CDs commercially. Using a CGT gene from Klebsiella,(More)
The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EC, encoded by the aroA locus, is a target site of glyphosate inhibition in bacteria. A glyphosate-resistant aroA allele has been cloned in Escherichia coli from a mutagenized strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Subcloning of this mutant aroA allele shows the gene to reside on a 1.3-kilobase(More)
The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins are safe biological insecticides, but have short persistance and are poorly effective against pests that feed inside plant tissues. Production of effective levels of these proteins in plants has required resynthesis of the genes encoding them. We report that amplification of an unmodified crylA(c) coding(More)
The herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) is a photosynthetic (photosystem II) inhibitor in plants. A gene, bxn, encoding a specific nitrilase that converts bromoxynil to its primary metabolite 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, was cloned from the natural soil bacterium Klebsiella ozaenae. For expression in plants, the bxn gene was(More)
Enrichment of soil samples for organisms able to utilize the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) as a nitrogen source yielded bacterial isolates capable of rapidly metabolizing this compound. One isolate, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, could completely convert 0.05% bromoxynil to 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid(More)