David M Serwadda

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BACKGROUND Ecological and observational studies suggest that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. Our aim was to investigate the effect of male circumcision on HIV incidence in men. METHODS 4996 uncircumcised, HIV-negative men aged 15-49 years who agreed to HIV testing and counselling were enrolled in this randomised trial in(More)
BACKGROUND We estimated rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transmission per coital act in HIV-discordant couples by stage of infection in the index partner. METHODS We retrospectively identified 235 monogamous, HIV-discordant couples in a Ugandan population-based cohort. HIV transmission within pairs was confirmed by sequence analysis. Rates of(More)
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA (Prof J Frenk MD); China Medical Board, Cambridge, MA, USA (L Chen MD); Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan (Prof Z A Bhutta PhD); George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA (Prof J Cohen MD); Independent member of House of Lords, London, UK (N Crisp KCB); James P Grant School of(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS We examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15,127 persons in a rural district of Uganda, we identified 415 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and one was initially HIV-1-negative(More)
BACKGROUND The probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in representative African populations is unknown. We aimed to calculate this probability overall, and to estimate how it is affected by various factors thought to influence infectivity. METHODS 174 monogamous couples, in which one partner was HIV-1 positive, were retrospectively identified(More)
Although domestic violence is an increasing public health concern in developing countries, evidence from representative, community-based studies is limited. In a survey of 5109 women of reproductive age in the Rakai District of Uganda, 30% of women had experienced physical threats or physical abuse from their current partner--20% during the year before the(More)
BACKGROUND The study tested the hypothesis that community-level control of sexually transmitted disease (STD) would result in lower incidence of HIV-1 infection in comparison with control communities. METHODS This randomised, controlled, single-masked, community-based trial of intensive STD control, via home-based mass antibiotic treatment, took place in(More)
BACKGROUND In-vitro research has suggested that bacterial vaginosis may increase the survival of HIV-1 in the genital tract. Therefore, we investigated the association of HIV-1 infection with vaginal flora abnormalities, including bacterial vaginosis and depletion of lactobacilli, after adjustment for sexual activity and the presence of other sexually(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the effects of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections on pregnancy, we undertook cross-sectional and prospective studies of a rural population in Rakai district, Uganda. METHODS 4813 sexually active women aged 15-49 years were surveyed to find out the prevalence of pregnancy by interview and selective urinary human chorionic(More)
BACKGROUND Male circumcision significantly reduced the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men in three clinical trials. We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men. METHODS(More)