David M. Segal

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major cell-surface initiators of inflammatory responses to pathogens. They bind a wide variety of pathogenic substances through their ectodomains (ECDs). Here, we ask: what is the structural basis for this interaction? Toll-like receptor ECDs comprise 19-25 tandem copies of a motif known as the leucine-rich repeat (LRR).(More)
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a molecular signature of most viruses, and triggers inflammatory responses that prevent viral spread. TLR3 ectodomains (ECDs) dimerize on oligonucleotides of at least 40 to 50 base pairs in length, the minimal length required for signal transduction. To establish the molecular basis for(More)
beta-Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system produced in response to microbial infection of mucosal tissue and skin. We demonstrate that murine beta-defensin 2 (mDF2beta) acts directly on immature dendritic cells as an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), inducing up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and(More)
Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TLR3 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where(More)
A number of pathogens induce immature dendritic cells (iDC) to migrate to lymphoid organs where, as mature DC (mDC), they serve as efficient APC. We hypothesized that pathogen recognition by iDC is mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and asked which TLRs are expressed during the progression of monocytes to mDC. We first measured mRNA levels for TLRs 1-5(More)
The membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger innate immune responses after recognition of a wide variety of pathogen-derived compounds. Despite the wide range of ligands recognized by TLRs, the receptors share a common structural framework in their extracellular, ligand-binding domains. These domains all adopt horseshoe-shaped structures built from(More)
CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid suppressor cells (MSC) accumulate in lymphoid organs under conditions of intense immune stress where they inhibit T and B cell function. We recently described the generation of immortalized MSC lines that provide a homogeneous source of suppressor cells for dissecting the mechanism of suppression. In this study we show that the MSC(More)
We previously demonstrated that a specialized subset of immature myeloid cells migrate to lymphoid organs as a result of tumor growth or immune stress, where they suppress B and T cell responses to Ags. Although NO was required for suppression of mitogen activation of T cells by myeloid suppressor cells (MSC), it was not required for suppression of(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade that(More)
Atopic diseases such as allergy and asthma are characterized by increases in Th2 cells and serum IgE antibodies. The binding of allergens to IgE on mast cells triggers the release of several mediators, of which histamine is the most prevalent. Here we show that histamine, together with a maturation signal, acts directly upon immature dendritic cells (iDCs),(More)