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The mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway regulates cell growth in response to numerous cues, including amino acids, which promote mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface, its site of activation. The heterodimeric RagA/B-RagC/D GTPases, the Ragulator complex that tethers the Rags to the lysosome, and the v-ATPase form a signaling system that is necessary(More)
The nutrient- and growth factor-responsive kinase mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates many processes that control growth, including protein synthesis, autophagy, and lipogenesis. Through unknown mechanisms, mTORC1 promotes the function of SREBP, a master regulator of lipo- and sterolgenic gene transcription. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 regulates SREBP by(More)
The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell proliferation is unclear. It is also not well understood why pyruvate supplementation allows cells lacking ETC function to proliferate. We used a CRISPR-based genetic screen to identify genes whose loss sensitizes human cells to(More)
For organisms to coordinate their growth and development with nutrient availability, they must be able to sense nutrient levels in their environment. Here, we review select nutrient-sensing mechanisms in a few diverse organisms. We discuss how these mechanisms reflect the nutrient requirements of specific species and how they have adapted to the emergence(More)
It is increasingly appreciated that oncogenic transformation alters cellular metabolism to facilitate cell proliferation, but less is known about the metabolic changes that promote cancer cell aggressiveness. Here, we analyzed metabolic gene expression in cancer cell lines and found that a set of high-grade carcinoma lines expressing mesenchymal markers(More)
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