David M. Rind

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This article describes the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to classifying the direction and strength of recommendations. The strength of a recommendation, separated into strong and weak, is defined as the extent to which one can be confident that the desirable effects of an intervention outweigh its(More)
The most common reason for rating up the quality of evidence is a large effect. GRADE suggests considering rating up quality of evidence one level when methodologically rigorous observational studies show at least a two-fold reduction or increase in risk, and rating up two levels for at least a five-fold reduction or increase in risk. Systematic review(More)
In the GRADE approach, the strength of a recommendation reflects the extent to which we can be confident that the composite desirable effects of a management strategy outweigh the composite undesirable effects. This article addresses GRADE's approach to determining the direction and strength of a recommendation. The GRADE describes the balance of desirable(More)
Using cognitive evaluation techniques, this study examines the effects of an electronic patient record and electronic mail on the interactions of health care providers. We find that the least structured communication methods are also the most heavily used: face-to-face, telephone, and electronic mail. Positive benefits of electronically-mediated(More)
BACKGROUND Hospital computing systems play an important part in the communication of clinical information to physicians. We sought to determine whether computer-based alerts for hospitalized patients can affect physicians' behavior and improve patients' outcomes. METHODS We performed a prospective time-series study to determine whether computerized alerts(More)
To evaluate the confidentiality of the patients' data in the electronic patient records designed by members of the Center for Clinical Computing in Boston, we examined the accessibility of the computer-stored medical records of two groups of patients at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital: celebrities, hospital employees, and their relatives (VIPs) and other(More)
The electronic patient record at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has fundamentally changed the practice of medicine in ways that its developers never foresaw. This type of highly interactive and work flow enabled program is creating new collaborative roles for computers in complex organizations [4]. With the system able to supervise and monitor(More)
Computers are steadily being incorporated in clinical practice. We conducted a nonrandomised, controlled, prospective trial of electronic messages designed to enhance adherence to clinical practice guidelines. We studied 126 physicians and nurse practitioners who used electronic medical records when caring for 349 patients with HIV infection in a primary(More)
OBJECTIVE Although the patient Internet portal is a potentially transformative technology, there is little scientific information about the demographic and clinical characteristics of portal enrollees and the features that they access. DESIGN We describe two pilot studies of a comprehensive Internet portal called PatientSite. These pilots include a(More)
Most early reports of implemented World-Wide Web (W3) medical record systems describe single institution architectures. We describe W3-EMRS, a multi-institutional architecture, and its implementation. Thorny problems in data sharing underlined by the W3-EMRS project are reviewed.