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Sleep is vital to cognitive performance, productivity, health and well-being. Earlier theories of sleep presumed that it occurred at the level of the whole organism and that it was governed by central control mechanisms. However, evidence now indicates that sleep might be regulated at a more local level in the brain: it seems to be a fundamental property of(More)
This study used high-resolution hemispheric mapping of somatosensory evoked potentials to determine the number and organization of secondary somatosensory areas (SII) in rat cortex. Two areas, referred to as SII and PV (parietoventral), revealed complete (SII) or nearly complete (PV) body maps. The vibrissa and somatic representation of SII was upright,(More)
Optical techniques offer a number of potential advantages for imaging dynamic spatio-temporal patterns of activity in neural tissue. The methods provide the wide field of view required to image population activation across networks, while allowing resolution of the detailed structure of individual cells. Optical probes can provide high temporal resolution(More)
Surface evoked potentials (SEPs) during auditory clicks and whisker twitches are usually larger during quiet sleep (QS) over waking and REM sleep. However, SEP amplitudes from single trials fluctuate periodically between high and low values regardless of sleep-wake cycle. To test the hypothesis that state-independent fluctuations represent local functional(More)
We developed a method to microfabricate flexible electrode arrays on a thin Kapton substrate, which was engineered to minimize trauma when inserted between the dura and skull to obtain surface EEG recordings. The array consisted of 64 gold electrodes, each 150microm in diameter on a 750microm spaced 8x8 grid. Using photolithographic procedures, any(More)
We develop and characterize a dynamical network model for activity-dependent sleep regulation. Specifically, in accordance with the activity-dependent theory for sleep, we view organism sleep as emerging from the local sleep states of functional units known as cortical columns; these local sleep states evolve through integration of local activity inputs,(More)
The rodent whisker sensory system is a commonly used model of cortical processing; however, anesthetics cause profound differences in the shape and timing of evoked responses. Evoked response studies, especially those that use spatial mapping techniques, such as fMRI or optical imaging, will thus show significantly different results depending on the(More)
We developed an optical probe for cross-polarized reflected light measurements and investigated optical signals associated with electrophysiological activation in isolated lobster nerves. The cross-polarized baseline light intensity (structural signal) and the amplitude of the transient response to stimulation (functional signal) measured in reflected mode(More)
An optical lever was designed for studying physical displacements associated with electrophysiological activation of lobster nerve bundles. Stimulation current pulses generated a compound action potential volley, and upward physical displacements of <1 nm were recorded. The swelling displacement propagated in the same direction as the action potential(More)
Substantial evidence suggests that brain regions that have been disproportionately used during waking will require a greater intensity and/or duration of subsequent sleep. For example, rats use their whiskers in the dark and their eyes during the light, and this is manifested as a greater magnitude of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity in the(More)