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To correlate the variable clinical features of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer with somatic alterations, we studied pretreatment tumour biopsies accrued from patients in two studies of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy by massively parallel sequencing and analysis. Eighteen significantly mutated genes were identified, including five genes(More)
BACKGROUND Oncologic resection techniques affect outcome for colon cancer and rectal cancer, but standardized guidelines have not been adopted. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a panel of experts to systematically review current literature and to draft guidelines that provide uniform definitions, principles, and practices. METHODS Methods were(More)
BACKGROUND Although catheterization of the subclavian vein is a common procedure, the risk factors for complications and failures, with the exception of the physician's experience, are poorly understood. Ultrasonography has been recommended to help guide the placement of central venous catheters. METHODS We conducted a prospective randomized trial of(More)
BACKGROUND Sphincter-sparing alternatives to abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer often are underused out of concern for inadequate distal margins and local failure. The present study addresses whether sphincter-sparing techniques with distal margins < or = 1 cm adversely influence oncological outcome in patients given(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the outcomes of patients with microscopically positive (R1) resections for primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) because existing retrospective series contain small numbers of patients. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with R1 resection and assess the risk of recurrence with and without(More)
BACKGROUND Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping by lymphoscintigraphy has changed the surgical management of regional lymph node metastases for melanoma. SLNs lying outside of traditional nodal basins are now being identified. Our hypothesis is that when preoperative lymphoscintigraphy identifies aberrant SLNs, these nodes should be excised and, if(More)
The quantity and localization of two lactose-binding lectins with molecular weights of 31,000 and 14,500 in human colorectal carcinoma tissue specimens obtained by surgical resection have been studied using specific polyclonal antibodies. Electrophoretic separation and blotting of detergent extracts of tumor tissues (48 specimens), followed by the binding(More)
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in metastasis and tumor growth. Human tumors, including colorectal adenocarcinoma, secrete angiogenic factors, inducing proliferation and chemotaxis of microvascular endothelial cells, eventually leading to tumor neovascularization. The chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8; CXCL8) exerts potent angiogenic properties on(More)
The search for a hormonal marker in breast cancer has centered on estrogens and their metabolites. However, direct measurements of total amounts of these steroids have shown no convincing or consistent differences between normal women and women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to measure the percentages of non-protein-bound estradiol(More)