David M. Lyons

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The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that brief intermittent stress exposure early in life induces the development of subsequent stress resistance in human and nonhuman primates. Rodent studies, however, suggest a role for maternal care rather than stress exposure per se (i.e., the maternal mediation hypothesis). To investigate these two(More)
A consistent finding in biological psychiatry is that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis physiology is altered in humans with major depression. These findings include hypersecretion of cortisol at baseline and on the dexamethasone suppression test. In this review, we present a process-oriented model for HPA axis regulation in major depression.(More)
Variations in maternal care induce in neonatal rodents life-long changes in glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This aspect of plasticity in neuroendocrine development has not been established in primates. We assessed, in young adult squirrel monkeys, postnatal rearing effects on cortisol-induced suppression of(More)
Corticosteroids have been implicated in hippocampal atrophy in patients with severe psychiatric disorders, but little is known about receptor expression for corticosteroids in human or nonhuman primate brain. Both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) were surveyed in this study of squirrel monkey brain using in situ(More)
BACKGROUND Retrospective studies in humans have identified characteristics that promote stress resistance, including childhood exposure to moderately stressful events (ie, stress inoculation). OBJECTIVE Because of limited opportunities for prospective studies in children, we tested whether exposure to moderate stress early in life produces later stress(More)
BACKGROUND Opportunities for research on the causes and consequences of stress-related hippocampal atrophy are limited in human psychiatric disorders. Therefore, this longitudinal study investigated early life stress and inherited variation in monkey hippocampal volumes. METHODS Paternal half-siblings raised apart from one another by different mothers in(More)
Most studies of cortisol-induced cognitive impairments have focused on hippocampal-dependent memory. This study investigates a different aspect of cognition in a randomized placebo-controlled experiment with monkeys that were treated with cortisol according to a protocol that simulates a prolonged stress response. Young adult and older adult monkeys were(More)
In humans, consolidation of wakefulness into a single episode can be modeled as the interaction of two processes, a homeostatic "hour-glass" wake signal that declines throughout the daytime and a circadian wake-promoting signal that peaks in the evening. Hypocretins, novel hypothalamic neuropeptides that are dysfunctional in the sleep disorder narcolepsy,(More)
Most nonhuman primate research on risk factors underlying vulnerability to stress has focused on early psychosocial experiences in various species of macaques. To test for genetic and experiential effects on emotional vulnerability in randomly bred squirrel monkeys, here we combined a paternal half-sibling analysis with three postnatal rearing protocols(More)
Although social stress inhibits neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, the extent to which individual differences in stress-related behavior affect hippocampal cell proliferation is not well understood. Based on results from resident-intruder stress tests administered to adult male mice, here we report that individual differences in hippocampal cell(More)