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Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and encompass a vast amount of genetic diversity. The recent rapid increase in the number of sequenced viral genomes has created unprecedented opportunities for gaining new insight into the structure and evolution of the virosphere. Here, we present an update of the phage orthologous groups (POGs),(More)
Given the massive increase in the number of new sequences and structures, a critical problem is how to integrate these raw data into meaningful biological information. One approach, the Evolutionary Trace, or ET, uses phylogenetic information to rank the residues in a protein sequence by evolutionary importance and then maps those ranked at the top onto a(More)
Bacteriophages have key roles in microbial communities, to a large extent shaping the taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiome, but data on the connections between phage diversity and the composition of communities are scarce. Using taxon-specific marker genes, we identified and monitored 20 viral taxa in 252 human gut metagenomic samples,(More)
SUMMARY The Evolutionary Trace Viewer (ETV) provides a one-stop environment in which to run, visualize and interpret Evolutionary Trace (ET) predictions of functional sites in protein structures. ETV is implemented using Java to run across different operating systems using Java Web Start technology. AVAILABILITY The ETV is available for download from our(More)
Accurate inference of orthologous genes is a pre-requisite for most comparative genomics studies, and is also important for functional annotation of new genomes. Identification of orthologous gene sets typically involves phylogenetic tree analysis, heuristic algorithms based on sequence conservation, synteny analysis, or some combination of these(More)
Genomes of bacteria and archaea (collectively, prokaryotes) appear to exist in incessant flux, expanding via horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication, and contracting via gene loss. However, the actual rates of genome dynamics and relative contributions of different types of event across the diversity of prokaryotes are largely unknown, as are the(More)
The development of new and effective drugs is strongly affected by the need to identify drug targets and to reduce side effects. Resolving these issues depends partially on a thorough understanding of the biological function of proteins. Unfortunately, the experimental determination of protein function is expensive and time consuming. To support and(More)
The comparison of structural subsites in proteins is increasingly relevant to the prediction of their biological function. To address this problem, we present the Match Augmentation algorithm (MA). Given a structural motif of interest, such as a functional site, MA searches a target protein structure for a match: the set of atoms with the greatest geometric(More)
Determining the function of proteins is a problem with immense practical impact on the identification of inhibition targets and the causes of side effects. Unfortunately, experimental determination of protein function is expensive and time consuming. For this reason, algorithms for computational function prediction have been developed to focus and(More)
Functional sites determine the activity and interactions of proteins and as such constitute the targets of most drugs. However, the exponential growth of sequence and structure data far exceeds the ability of experimental techniques to identify their locations and key amino acids. To fill this gap we developed a computational Evolutionary Trace method that(More)