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Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and encompass a vast amount of genetic diversity. The recent rapid increase in the number of sequenced viral genomes has created unprecedented opportunities for gaining new insight into the structure and evolution of the virosphere. Here, we present an update of the phage orthologous groups (POGs),(More)
BACKGROUND UTF-1 and REX-1/ZFP42 are transcription factors involved in pluripotency. Because of phenotypic similarities between pluripotent embryonic stem cells and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) and the derivation of pluripotent cells from testes, we investigated the expression of UTF-1 and REX-1 during human gonadal development and in TGCT. METHODS(More)
Given the massive increase in the number of new sequences and structures, a critical problem is how to integrate these raw data into meaningful biological information. One approach, the Evolutionary Trace, or ET, uses phylogenetic information to rank the residues in a protein sequence by evolutionary importance and then maps those ranked at the top onto a(More)
SUMMARY The Evolutionary Trace Viewer (ETV) provides a one-stop environment in which to run, visualize and interpret Evolutionary Trace (ET) predictions of functional sites in protein structures. ETV is implemented using Java to run across different operating systems using Java Web Start technology. AVAILABILITY The ETV is available for download from our(More)
BACKGROUND More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds(More)
The development of new and effective drugs is strongly affected by the need to identify drug targets and to reduce side effects. Resolving these issues depends partially on a thorough understanding of the biological function of proteins. Unfortunately, the experimental determination of protein function is expensive and time consuming. To support and(More)
Bacteriophages have key roles in microbial communities, to a large extent shaping the taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiome, but data on the connections between phage diversity and the composition of communities are scarce. Using taxon-specific marker genes, we identified and monitored 20 viral taxa in 252 human gut metagenomic samples,(More)
Accurate inference of orthologous genes is a pre-requisite for most comparative genomics studies, and is also important for functional annotation of new genomes. Identification of orthologous gene sets typically involves phylogenetic tree analysis, heuristic algorithms based on sequence conservation, synteny analysis, or some combination of these(More)
The comparison of structural subsites in proteins is increasingly relevant to the prediction of their biological function. To address this problem, we present the Match Augmentation algorithm (MA). Given a structural motif of interest, such as a functional site, MA searches a target protein structure for a match: the set of atoms with the greatest geometric(More)
The transcription factor OCT4 plays a crucial role in the earliest differentiation of the mammalian embryo and in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. However, it remains controversial whether this gene is also expressed in somatic tissues. Here, we use a combination of RT-PCR on whole and microdissected tissues, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry(More)