David M. Kramer

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A number of useful photosynthetic parameters are commonly derived from saturation pulse-induced fluorescence analysis. We show, that qP, an estimate of the fraction of open centers, is based on a pure ‘puddle’ antenna model, where each Photosystem (PS) II center possesses its own independent antenna system. This parameter is incompatible with more realistic(More)
The biochemical, biophysical, and physiological properties of the PsbS protein were studied in relation to mutations of two symmetry-related, lumen-exposed glutamate residues, Glu-122 and Glu-226. These two glutamates are targets for protonation during lumen acidification in excess light. Mutation of PsbS did not affect xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion(More)
The light-dependent production of ATP and reductants by the photosynthetic apparatus in vivo involves a series of electron and proton transfers. Consideration is given as to how electron fluxes through photosystem I (PSI), using absorption spectroscopy, and through photosystem II (PSII), using chlorophyll fluorescence analyses, can be estimated in vivo.(More)
Proton motive force (pmf), established across the thylakoid membrane by photosynthetic electron transfer, functions both to drive the synthesis of ATP and initiate processes that down-regulate photosynthesis. At the same time, excessively low lumen pH can lead to the destruction of some lumenal components and sensitization of the photosynthetic apparatus to(More)
The photosynthetic electron transfer chain generates proton motive force (pmf), composed of both electric field (Deltapsi) and concentration (DeltapH) gradients. Both components can drive ATP synthesis, whereas the DeltapH component alone can trigger feedback regulation of the antenna. It has often been suggested that a relatively large pmf is needed to(More)
Plant photosynthesis performs the remarkable feat of converting light energy into usable chemical forms, which involves taming highly reactive intermediates without harming plant cells. This requires an apparatus that is not only efficient and robust but also flexible in its responses to changing environmental conditions. It also requires that the output of(More)
The observed levels of Delta G(ATP) in chloroplasts, as well as the activation behavior of the CF(1)CF(0)-ATP synthase, suggest a minimum transthylakoid proton motive force (pmf) equivalent to a Delta pH of approximately 2.5 units. If, as is commonly believed, all transthylakoid pmf is stored as Delta pH, this would indicate a lumen pH of less than(More)
In higher plant chloroplasts, transthylakoid proton motive force serves both to drive the synthesis of ATP and to regulate light capture by the photosynthetic antenna to prevent photodamage. In vivo probes of the proton circuit in wild-type and a mutant strain of Arabidopsis thaliana show that regulation of light capture is modulated primarily by altering(More)
Energy-dependent exciton quenching, or q(E), protects the higher plant photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Initiation of q(E) involves protonation of violaxanthin deepoxidase and PsbS, a component of the photosystem II antenna complex, as a result of lumen acidification driven by photosynthetic electron transfer. It has become clear that the response(More)
Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitation energy, which protects higher plant photosynthetic machinery from photodamage, is triggered by acidification of the thylakoid lumen as a result of light-induced proton pumping, which also drives the synthesis of ATP. It is clear that the sensitivity of NPQ is modulated in response to changing physiological(More)