David M. Kern

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BACKGROUND Maternal infection during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, most viruses do not cross the placenta; therefore, the damaging effects to the fetus appear to be related to maternal antiviral responses to infection (e.g. proinflammatory cytokines). Fetal exposure to the proinflammatory(More)
Increased length of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and in utero infection are each associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Hence, we examined whether prenatal infections are related to CSP length in schizophrenia patients. In a well-characterized birth cohort, in utero infection was assessed using serologic biomarkers or physician diagnoses.(More)
OBJECTIVE Executive dysfunction is one of the most prominent and functionally important cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Although strong associations have been identified between executive impairments and structural and functional prefrontal cortical deficits, the etiological factors that contribute to disruption of this important cognitive domain(More)
Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown whether T cell activation and senescence, 2 immunologic sequelae of HIV infection, are associated with vascular disease among HIV-infected adults. METHODS T cell phenotyping and carotid ultrasound were assessed among 115(More)
BACKGROUND Natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan Pharmaceuticals) significantly reduces the relapse rate and disability progression, and improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We investigated the impact of natalizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a real-world setting. (More)
BACKGROUND Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combinations (ICS/LABA) have emerged as first line therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with exacerbation history. No randomized clinical trial has compared exacerbation rates among COPD patients receiving budesonide/formoterol combination (BFC) and(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major causes of pneumonia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Limited data exist regarding the health economic impact of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pneumonias in the ICU setting. METHODS We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using a 29.6 million enrollee US medical and(More)
Pollen tubes extend rapidly when pollen grains are incubated in defined media. Tube extension requires many critical functions of plant cells including molecular signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, secretion, and cell wall synthesis. Consequently, pollen tube growth has been established as a way to conduct primary screens of chemical libraries to identify(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the estimated prevalence and temporal trends of chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment patterns, and the association between CKD and potential factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different demographic subgroups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional analysis of adults with T2DM based on multiple US(More)