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The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine) water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples,(More)
Surface waters of the subtropical Sargasso Sea contain dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations of 0.2 to 1.0 nanomolar, which are sufficiently low to result in phosphorus control of primary production. The DIP concentrations in this area (which receives high inputs of iron-rich dust from arid regions of North Africa) are one to two orders of(More)
The ocean's interior is Earth's largest biome. Recently, cultivation-independent ribosomal RNA gene surveys have indicated a potential importance for archaea in the subsurface ocean. But quantitative data on the abundance of specific microbial groups in the deep sea are lacking. Here we report a year-long study of the abundance of two specific archaeal(More)
Microbial life predominates in the ocean, yet little is known about its genomic variability, especially along the depth continuum. We report here genomic analyses of planktonic microbial communities in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, from the ocean's surface to near-sea floor depths. Sequence variation in microbial community genes reflected vertical(More)
The elemental composition of marine cyanobacteria is an important determinant of the ecological stoichiometry in low-latitude marine biomes. We analyzed the cellular carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents of Prochlorococcus (MED4) and Synechococcus (WH8103 and WH8012) under nutrient-replete and P-starved conditions. Under nutrient-replete(More)
Deep chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are widespread in large parts of the world's oceans. These deep layers of high chlorophyll concentration reflect a compromise of phytoplankton growth exposed to two opposing resource gradients: light supplied from above and nutrients supplied from below. It is often argued that DCMs are stable features. Here we show, however,(More)
Seven years of time-series observations of biogeochemical processes in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean gyre have revealed dramatic changes in the microbial community structure and in the mechanisms of nutrient cycling in response to large-scale ocean–atmosphere interactions. Several independent lines of evidence show that the fixation of atmospheric(More)
Phosphorus is an obligate requirement for the growth of all organisms; major biochemical reservoirs of phosphorus in marine plankton include nucleic acids and phospholipids. However, eukaryotic phytoplankton and cyanobacteria (that is, 'phytoplankton' collectively) have the ability to decrease their cellular phosphorus content when phosphorus in their(More)
Polyribonucleotide probes targeting planktonic archaeal (Group I and II) and bacterial rRNA revealed that Ar-chaea comprised a significant fraction of total prokaryote cell abundance in the marine waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Determinations of Archaea and Bacteria cell abundances were made during two research cruises to the Palmer Long-Term(More)
The oceanic biological pump drives sequestration of carbon dioxide in the deep sea via sinking particles. Rapid biological consumption and remineralization of carbon in the "twilight zone" (depths between the euphotic zone and 1000 meters) reduce the efficiency of sequestration. By using neutrally buoyant sediment traps to sample this chronically(More)