Learn More
The outgrowth of single axons through different cellular environments requires distinct sets of genes in the nematode C. elegans. Three genes are required for the pioneering circumferential outgrowth of identified motor neuron axons between the lateral hypodermal cell membrane and the basal lamina. Three other genes are required for the longitudinal(More)
Dysthyroid orbitopathy (DO) is an autoimmune disorder usually associated with Graves' disease. The extra-ocular muscles are the target of the autoimmune attack. As a result, they become enlarged, producing restrictive ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other cardinal signs of DO include upper eyelid retraction and lag, conjunctival injection and chemosis, and(More)
The causes of ophthalmoplegia in 24 consecutive patients with neurologically isolated, relative pupil-sparing third nerve palsy included infarction in 10 patients, compression by tumors or aneurysms in 10 patients, and miscellaneous disorders in four patients. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with pain, degree of external(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary purpose was to investigate whether serum vitamin A concentration is associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The secondary aim was to obtain pilot data regarding the amount of vitamin A ingested by patients and controls. BACKGROUND Vitamin A is an attractive candidate mediator of IIH as many of the symptoms and(More)
We compared linear indices of computed tomography ventricular size in patients with pseudotumor cerebri and in age-matched controls, and found no difference between these populations. Two physicians showed poor agreement and sensitivity when blindly judging whether patients and controls had "slit-like" ventricles. We conclude that ventricular size on(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency and clinical correlates of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody seropositivity in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive new patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy diagnosed in an outpatient neuro-ophthalmology practice underwent determination of AChR-binding antibodies. Clinical(More)
Trauma-induced superior oblique palsy usually results from contusion or avulsion of the trochlear nerve or from decompensation of a congenital trochlear nerve palsy. Severe craniocerebral trauma is often associated with the former mechanism, whereas more minor closed-head injuries can decompensate a congenital phoria. We report a patient who developed an(More)
The authors describe five patients with trochlear nerve palsy and MS to characterize this rare association. In two patients, trochlear nerve palsy was the initial clinical manifestation of MS. In the other three patients, this sign occurred after previous neurologic events. MRI did not identify a lesion of the fourth nerve nucleus or fascicle.(More)
We report the clinical and neuropathologic findings of a 63-year-old woman who died following an accidental lithium overdose that produced coma, respiratory depression, horizontal gaze palsy, and downbeating nystagmus. She also had mild hypomagnesemia. The pathology was cytotoxicity, predominantly in the regions of the nuclei prepositus hypoglossi and(More)