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With the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochromeb gene (∼ 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the(More)
Pairs of templates and primers were designed so that only recombination events would lead to amplification via the polymerase chain reaction. This approach reveals that lesions such as breaks, apurinic sites, and UV damage in a DNA template can cause the extending primer to jump to another template during the polymerase chain reaction. By comparing(More)
To investigate the origin of stomach expression of lysozyme in ruminants; we surveyed clones from a cow stomach cDNA library with a lysozyme cDNA probe. Ten percent of the clones in this library were lysozyme-specific. Thirty of the lysozyme clones were sequenced, and seven types of lysozyme mRNA sequence were found. They encode the three previously(More)
Abstract We have found that mammalian genomes contain two lysozyme g genes. To better understand the function of the lysozyme g genes we have examined the evolution of this small gene family. The lysozyme g gene structure has been largely conserved during vertebrate evolution, except at the 5′ end of the gene, which varies in number of exons. The expression(More)
The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data(More)
The proglucagon gene encodes several hormones that have key roles in the regulation of metabolism. In particular, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), a potent stimulus of insulin secretion, is being developed as a therapy for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To define structural moieties of the molecule that convey its insulinotropic(More)
The DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochromeb gene of marine mammals (Cetacea, Pinnipedia, Sirenia) were compared with cytochromeb genes of terrestrial mammals including the semiaquatic hippopotamus. The comparison included 28 sequences, representing 22 families and 10 orders. The dugong (order Sirenia) sequence associated with that of the elephant,(More)
Contradictory evolutionary histories of ruminant lysozymes have been predicted by analysis of genomic blots (Irwin, D.M., Sidow, A., White, R., and Wilson, A.C. (1989) in The Immune Response to Structurally Defined Proteins: The Lysozyme Model (Smith-Gill, S.J., and Sercarz, E.E., eds) pp. 73-85, Adenine Press, Guilderland, NY) and sequences of cow stomach(More)
The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs belong to the Neobatrachia, and no genome exists for this(More)
The trypsin-like serine protease (Tryp_SPc) family is ubiquitous in animals and plays diverse roles, especially in the digestive system, in different phyla. In the mosquito, some Tryp_SPc proteases make important contributions to the digestion of the blood meal. Here, we have defined the complete Tryp_SPc gene repertoire in the genome of the malaria(More)