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With the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochrome b gene (approximately 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various(More)
The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data(More)
The proglucagon gene encodes several hormones that have key roles in the regulation of metabolism. In particular, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), a potent stimulus of insulin secretion, is being developed as a therapy for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To define structural moieties of the molecule that convey its insulinotropic(More)
We have found that mammalian genomes contain two lysozyme g genes. To better understand the function of the lysozyme g genes we have examined the evolution of this small gene family. The lysozyme g gene structure has been largely conserved during vertebrate evolution, except at the 5' end of the gene, which varies in number of exons. The expression pattern(More)
The trypsin-like serine protease (Tryp_SPc) family is ubiquitous in animals and plays diverse roles, especially in the digestive system, in different phyla. In the mosquito, some Tryp_SPc proteases make important contributions to the digestion of the blood meal. Here, we have defined the complete Tryp_SPc gene repertoire in the genome of the malaria(More)
The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs belong to the Neobatrachia, and no genome exists for this(More)
Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were(More)
The type 2 diabetes risk gene TCF7L2 is the effector of the Wnt signaling pathway. We found previously that in gut endocrine L-cell lines, TCF7L2 controls transcription of the proglucagon gene (gcg), which encodes the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whereas peripheral GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, brain GLP-1 controls energy(More)
Bat flight poses intriguing questions about how flight independently developed in mammals. Flight is among the most energy-consuming activities. Thus, we deduced that changes in energy metabolism must be a primary factor in the origin of flight in bats. The respiratory chain of the mitochondrial produces 95% of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed for(More)
Peptide hormones encoded by the proglucagon (Gcg) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (Gip) genes are evolutionarily related glucagon-like sequences and act through a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. A better understanding of the evolutionary history of these hormones and receptors should yield insight into their biological functions.(More)