David M. Holloway

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We analyze the relation between maternal gradients and segmentation in Drosophila, by quantifying spatial precision in protein patterns. Segmentation is first seen in the striped expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, such as even-skipped (eve). We compare positional precision between Eve and the maternal gradients of Bicoid (Bcd) and Caudal (Cad)(More)
Positional information in developing embryos is specified by spatial gradients of transcriptional regulators. One of the classic systems for studying this is the activation of the hunchback (hb) gene in early fruit fly (Drosophila) segmentation by the maternally-derived gradient of the Bicoid (Bcd) protein. Gene regulation is subject to intrinsic noise(More)
During embryonic development, the positional information provided by concentration gradients of maternal factors directs pattern formation by providing spatially dependent cues for gene expression. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, a classic example of this is the sharp on-off activation of the hunchback (hb) gene at midembryo, in response to local(More)
Reaction-diffusion theory for pattern formation is considered in relation to processes of biological development in which there is continuous growth and shape change as each new pattern forms. This is particularly common in the plant kingdom, for both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In addition to the feedbacks in the chemical dynamics, there is(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS A study is made by computation of the interplay between the pattern formation of growth catalysts on a plant surface and the expansion of the surface to generate organismal shape. Consideration is made of the localization of morphogenetically active regions, and the occurrence within them of symmetry-breaking processes such as branching(More)
We quantify fluctuations in protein expression for three of the segmentation genes in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. These proteins are representative members of the first three levels of a signalling hierarchy which determines the segmented body plan: maternal (Bicoid protein); gap (Hunchback protein); and pair-rule (Even-skipped protein). We(More)
In early development, genes are expressed in spatial patterns which later define cellular identities and tissue locations. The mechanisms of such pattern formation have been studied extensively in early Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos. The gap gene hunchback (hb) is one of the earliest genes to be expressed in anterior-posterior (AP) body segmentation. As a(More)
This paper surveys modeling approaches for studying the evolution of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Modeling of the design or 'wiring' of GRNs has become increasingly common in developmental and medical biology, as a means of quantifying gene-gene interactions, the response to perturbations, and the overall dynamic motifs of networks. Drawing from(More)
In biological development, the generation of shape is preceded by the spatial localization of growth factors. Localization, and how it is maintained or changed during the process of growth, determines the shapes produced. Mathematical models have been developed to investigate the chemical, mechanical and transport properties involved in plant morphogenesis.(More)