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This study inventoried the types of developmental and negative experiences that youth encounter in different categories of extracurricular and community-based organized activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders from 19 diverse high schools responded to a computer-administered protocol. Youth in faith-based activities reported higher rates of(More)
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons appear to be critical regulators of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, which has been implicated in alcohol reward. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose "non-contingent" intravenous (IV) ethanol (0.01-0.1 g/kg) on VTA GABA neuron firing rate and synaptic responses, as well as(More)
BACKGROUND Withdrawal from chronic ethanol enhances ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neuron excitability and reduces mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, which is suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points (Zhao et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of HT7 acupuncture on VTA GABA neuron excitability, ethanol(More)
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons appear to be critical substrates underlying the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system implicated in alcohol reward. The aim of this study was to examine the role of midbrain connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) in ethanol intoxication and(More)
Connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) appear to be involved in the synchronization of GABA interneurons in many brain areas. We have previously identified a population of Cx36-connected ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons that may regulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, a system implicated in reward from both natural behaviors and drugs(More)
BACKGROUND Improving academic achievement and reducing the rates of obesity in elementary school students are both of considerable interest. Increased physical activity during academic instruction time during school offers a potential intervention to address both issues. A program titled "Physical Activity Across the Curriculum" (PAAC) was developed in(More)
There are many problems facing scientists in their eeorts to use computers to manage, access, and analyze data. One serious problem is the heterogene-ity of data sources. Previous research into accessing heterogeneous data has not addressed problems with accessing large data sources that are not managed by database management systems. We believe that an(More)