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In keeping with our promise earlier in this review, we summarize here the process by which we believe spatial cues are used for localizing a sound source in a free-field listening situation. We believe it entails two parallel processes: 1. The azimuth of the source is determined using differences in interaural time or interaural intensity, whichever is(More)
By conventional spike count measures, auditory neurons in the cat's anterior ectosylvian sulcus cortical area are broadly tuned for the location of a sound source. Nevertheless, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the temporal spike patterns of single neurons according to sound location. The spike patterns of 73 percent of single neurons(More)
The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of situation awareness based on the analysis of interactions between agents (i.e. both human and non-human) in subsystems. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of technology-mediated interaction in systems, as well as helping in the formulation of hypotheses and predictions(More)
In adaptive psychophysical procedures, the stimulus should be presented at a relatively high level rather than near the middle of the psychometric function, which is often defined as the "threshold" value. For some psychometric functions, the optimal stimulus placement level produces 84% to 94% correct responses in a two-alternative forced-choice task. This(More)
We evaluated two hypothetical codes for sound-source location in the auditory cortex. The topographical code assumed that single neurons are selective for particular locations and that sound-source locations are coded by the cortical location of small populations of maximally activated neurons. The distributed code assumed that the responses of individual(More)
A multiple regression analysis of sequential effects in magnitude estimation and absolute identification is presented as an alternative to the approach used by Lockhead and his students. The new analysis indicates that sequential effects do not extend over more than one trial. This is in agreement with the response ratio hypothesis. A more detailed multiple(More)
Production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor from stimulated human monocytes is inhibited by a new series of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds. Using radiolabelled and radio-photoaffinity-labelled chemical probes, the target of these compounds was identified as a pair of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase homologues, termed CSBPs.(More)
The bow and sequential effects in absolute identification are investigated in this paper by following two strategies: (1) Experiments are performed in which sequential dependencies in signal presentations are manipulated, and (2) analyses are conducted (some of which are largely free of model-specific assumptions) which bear directly on the question of the(More)
A maximum-likelihood procedure for estimating threshold values in a yes-no task is presented. In computer simulations of this procedure, it is demonstrated that the variability of the threshold estimates is little affected by the density of the hypotheses tested for a fixed range, or by serious misestimates of the slope of the psychometric functions. The(More)