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Simulation is a technique-not a technology-to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive manner. The diverse applications of simulation in healthcare can be categorized by 11 dimensions: aims and purposes of the simulation activity; unit of participation;(More)
3 I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it is fully ad in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it is fully ad in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this(More)
T he aim of this paper is to critically review what is felt to be important about the role of debriefing in the field of simulation-based learning, how it has come about and developed over time, and the different styles or approaches that are used and how effective the process is. A recent systematic review of high fidelity simulation literature identified(More)
Situation awareness has primarily been confined to the aviation field. We believe that situation awareness is an equally important characteristic in the complex, dynamic, and risky field of anesthesiology. We describe three aspects of situations of which the decision maker must remain aware: subtle cues, evolving situations, and special knowledge elements.(More)
BACKGROUND Sleep deprivation causes physiologic and subjective sleepiness. Studies of fatigue effects on anesthesiologist performance have given equivocal results. The authors used a realistic simulation environment to study the effects of sleep deprivation on psychomotor and clinical performance, subjective and objective sleepiness, and mood. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Administering anesthesia is a complex task in which either human or equipment failure can have disastrous consequences. An improved understanding of the nature of the anesthesiologist's job could provide a more rational basis for improvements in provider training as well as the design of anesthesia equipment. The objective of this study was to(More)
We compared results of safety climate survey questions from health care respondents with those from naval aviation, a high-reliability organization. Separate surveys containing a subset of 23 similar questions were conducted among employees from 15 hospitals and from naval aviators from 226 squadrons. For each question a "problematic response" was defined(More)
This paper describes an informal but systematic method for how to test and verify a knowledge-based system in a large open-ended medical target domain. The system used is Guardian, an intelligent system for monitoring and diagnosis of post-cardiac surgery patients in an intensive-care unit. The knowledge base is tested and verified by running the system on(More)