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OBJECT Females comprise an increasing percentage of the athlete population across all age groups, and analysis of recent literature reveals that they sustain more concussions in collegiate sports. Results of human and animal studies indicate that females may have poorer outcomes after traumatic brain injury; however, no return-to-play guideline takes sex or(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the cognitive status of professional football players varies as a function of age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. METHODS Fifty-three active players underwent APOE and neuropsychological assessments. Players were grouped according to age (proxy indicator of high/low exposure to contact) and the presence/absence of at(More)
OBJECTIVES We acquired normative data for an Internet neurocognitive screening tool, the Cognitive Stability Index (CSI), and investigated its validity both for initial assessment and for detecting significant change. PARTICIPANTS Normative data on a nationally representative sample of 284 individuals aged 18 to 89. Validity data was obtained for(More)
The Concussion Resolution Index (CRI) is an online assessment tool designed to track resolution of symptoms following sports-related concussion. The CRI is composed of six subtests measuring reaction time, visual recognition, and speed of information processing. Three factors are derived from the subtests: Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Complex Reaction Time(More)
This article reviews the existing literature in the following areas of sports neuropsychology: Dementia Pugilistica, concussion and Post Concussion Syndrome, Second Impact Syndrome, and the emerging role of the sports neuropsychologist regarding return to play decisions. Dementia Pugilistica is discussed as a condition that exists along a continuum:(More)
Defects in processing speed and memory are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In other populations, amphetamines have been shown to enhance cognition, but their use is limited by adverse behavioral effects. The L-isomer may have equivalent cognition enhancement with less adverse effects due to decreased potency in subcortical areas. The aim of this(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but is seldom assessed in clinical trials investigating the effects of disease-modifying therapies. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a particularly promising tool due to its sensitivity and robust correlation with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vocational disability.(More)
AbstrAct Cognitive screening measures for age-related cognitive impairment have been found to have only fair validity, and the risks of harm even may outweigh the benefits at this time (U.S. Preventative Service Task Force, 2003). A large-scale project designed to assess elder care in Primary Care Physician offices noted that dementia evaluation and(More)
OBJECT Current grading systems of concussion and return-to-play guidelines have little empirical support. The authors therefore examined the relationships of the characteristics and symptoms of concussion and the history of concussion to three indicators of concussion severity-number of immediate symptoms, number of symptoms at the initial follow-up(More)
BACKGROUND Memory impairment is prevalent in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no drugs are approved to treat these memory problems. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine the effect of l-amphetamine versus placebo on auditory/verbal memory and visual/spatial memory in MS patients with and without baseline memory impairment. METHODS We conducted(More)