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Although uterine distension in rats results in an escape reflex, there exists no model of uterine cervical distension (UCD), the pain stimulus during the first stage of labor. The aims of this study were to develop such a model in virgin rats and to test whether peripherally restricted kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists (ADL 10-0101, ADL 10-0102, ADL(More)
We compared the early neonatal neurobehavioral responses after lumbar epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean section using 2% lidocaine (n = 10) and 0.5% bupivacaine (n = 21). We tested the infants at 4 and 24 hr after birth and found that the neonates in the lidocaine group scored as well as those in the bupivacaine group on all parameters of the early(More)
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