David M. Chipman

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Two groups of enzymes are classified as acetolactate synthase (EC 4. 1.3.18). This review deals chiefly with the FAD-dependent, biosynthetic enzymes which readily catalyze the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and 2-oxobutyrate, as well as of acetolactate from two molecules of pyruvate (the ALS/AHAS group). These enzymes are generally(More)
The rates of formation of the two alternative products of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) have been determined by a new analytical method (N. Gollop, Z. Barak, and D. M. Chipman, Anal. Biochem., 160:323-331, 1987). For each of the three distinct isozymes of AHAS in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, a specificity ratio, R, was defined: Formula:(More)
The separately cloned large and small subunits of AHAS isozyme III from Escherichia coli have been isolated and purified. The essentially pure small subunit (17 kDa ilvH product) was obtained by a procedure exploiting its low solubility. The large, catalytic subunit (62 kDa ilvI product) was isolated by standard techniques, to > or = 95% purity. The large(More)
Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS; EC catalyzes the following two parallel, physiologically important reactions: condensation of two molecules of pyruvate to form acetolactate (AL), in the pathway to valine and leucine, and condensation of pyruvate plus 2-ketobutyrate to form acetohydroxybutyrate (AHB), in the pathway to isoleucine. We have(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's leading causes of death from infectious disease. It is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or sometimes, particularly in immune-compromised patients, Mycobacterium avium. The aim of this study was to create a tool that could be used in the search for new anti-TB drugs that inhibit branched-chain(More)
The metabolic effects of inhibitors of two enzymes in the pathway for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids were examined in Salmonella typhimurium mutant strain TV105, expressing a single isozyme of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), AHAS isozyme II. One inhibitor was the sulfonylurea herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SMM), which inhibits this isozyme(More)
A novel ligand-binding domain, named the 'ACT domain', was recently identified by a PSI-BLAST search. The archetypical ACT domain is the C-terminal regulatory domain of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3PGDH), which folds with a ferredoxin-like betaalphabetabetaalphabeta topology. A pair of ACT domains form an eight-stranded antiparallel sheet with two(More)
The acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) isozymes from enterobacteria are each composed of a large and small subunit in an alpha 2 beta 2 structure. It has been generally accepted that the large (ca. 60-kDa) subunits are catalytic, while the small ones are regulatory. In order to further characterize the roles of the subunits as well as the nature and the(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthases (AHASs) are biosynthetic thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP) and FAD-dependent enzymes. They are homologous to pyruvate oxidase and other members of a family of ThDP-dependent enzymes which catalyze reactions in which the first step is decarboxylation of a 2-ketoacid. AHAS catalyzes the condensation of the 2-carbon moiety, derived from(More)
The enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the three branched-chain amino acids. Enzymes in the AHAS family generally consist of regulatory and catalytic subunits. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of an AHAS regulatory subunit, the ilvH polypeptide, determined at a resolution of 1.75 A.(More)