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In a double-blind study, 135 inpatients with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with one of six parallel treatments: risperidone (a new central 5-hydroxytryptamine2 and dopamine D2 antagonist), 2, 6, 10, 16 mg/day; haloperidol, 20 mg/day; or placebo, after a single-blind placebo washout period. Doses were(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of the dopamine receptor 3 (DRD3) and transporter 1 (DAT1) genes in schizophrenia or in modulating its phenotype. METHODS a Ser9Gly polymorphism in codon 9 of the DRD3 and a VNTR polymorphism in the DAT1genes were examined in two groups of schizophrenic patients, one of excellent neuroleptic responders (N=42) and one of(More)
PURPOSE Current neural prostheses use electricity as the mode of stimulation, yet information transfer in neural circuitry is primarily through chemical transmitters. To address this disparity, this study was conducted to devise a prototype interface for a retinal prosthetic based on localized chemical delivery. The goal was to determine whether fluidic(More)
BACKGROUND Various modalities have been advocated and practiced to maximize the effectiveness of treatment for chronic subdural hematoma. Most patients with chronic subdural hematoma are successfully treated with simple burr-hole evacuation and external drainage. Hematomas with thick membranes have been found to persist or recur, sometimes necessitating(More)
The schizophrenia phenotype is heterogeneous with respect to clinical presentation, long-term response to medication, and outcome, possibly reflecting genetic heterogeneity and/or the presence of modifier genes. Compared to non-responders, schizophrenic patients who are responders to neuroleptic medications are characterized by a high female/male ratio, a(More)
Although genes play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia, no major genes involved in this disease have been identified. However, several genes with small effect have been reported, though inconsistently, to increase the risk for schizophrenia. Recently, the 5HT2A 2 allele (T102C polymorphism) was reported to be over-represented in patients with(More)
Micromachining has pushed the limits of photolithography in the vertical direction. We demonstrate a new technique for producing structures in thick photoresists, with excellent contact alignment and high aspect ratios using a standard UV source. In this technique, we exposed the resist from the bottom by defining the mask as part of the substrate. By doing(More)